Glossary of Terms

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ACCESS (1) - Taking the opportunity to use or experience something.

ACCESS (2) - Minimizing barriers (financial, location, physical, etc.) to facilitate opportunities in education or the workplace.

ADAPTABILITY - The ability to adjust easily and well to new situations.

ADULT LEARNING CENTRES - Adult Learning Centres are registered under the Adult Learning Centres Act to provide tuition free high school credit courses using recognized principles of adult education to enable adults in their community to complete secondary schooling or obtain the prerequisites to pursue further post-secondary and employment opportunities.

ADVISING - Recommending options that are considered best suited to the individual's needs. Practitioners help individuals examine such options and to make thoughtful decisions.

ADVOCATING - Negotiating directly with institutions, employers or agencies on behalf of individuals or groups for whom there may be additional barriers to access opportunities.

APPRENTICE - A registered trade-learner who has signed an Apprenticeship agreement with an employer to acquire the skills and knowledge of a trade through practical (on-the-job) experience under the supervision of a certified journey person, and through technical (in-school) training.

APPRENTICESHIP - A combined practical (on-the-job) experience and technical (in-school) training required for a designated trade as outlined in The Apprenticeship and Trades Qualification Act and specific trade regulations.

APTITUDE - A natural ability or talent.

ASSESSMENT - A process of gathering information to help individuals increase self awareness, identify issues, clarify needs and provide direction in establishing work/learning, and/or life balance goals.

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CAREER - A lifestyle concept that involves the sequence of work, learning and leisure activities in which one engages throughout a lifetime.

CAREER COUNSELOR - A person trained in helping others plan their career paths.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT - A holistic process that assists a person or persons to identify, acquire and enhance the knowledge, skills, attitudes and interests to set, achieve and balance personal and career goals, attain meaningful employment and successfully manage transitions.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONER - Any direct service provider in the career development field.

CAREER EDUCATOR - An individual who works with youth or adult learners in educational settings assisting them to learn career development knowledge, skills and applications.

CAREER EXPLORATION - The process of investigating and reflecting on self, personal environments, learning and work opportunities, and training and educational requirements, as a basis for making career-life choices.

CAREER INFORMATION - Information that can be useful in the process of career development, including educational, occupational and knowing ones self related to life choices (beg. earnings potential, employment requirements, availability of training, working conditions, career paths, regions of employment).

CAREER PATH - The series of any combination of life roles, learning, and occupations a person moves through by design and coincidence as their career unfolds. A Career Path in a work environment refers to a progression of work roles that are connected by training, learning and acquisition of skills and knowledge.

CAREER PLANNING - Determining a suitable career path using knowledge of personal interests, skills and preferred futures (dreams); researching the educational and skill requirements of potential work and life roles.

CERTIFICATE - Recognition and acknowledgement of completion of an education or training program.

COMMUNITY - A community can be a geographically bounded area within which people are affected by common economic, social, and environmental conditions and interests. A community can also be a group of people who share common experiences, goals, language, heritage and/or culture, and who are not necessarily bounded by geography.

COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING - The process and procedures that allow a community to create the tools and resources to address issues in economic development and social services.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS - Reading, writing, listening and speaking; the abilities needed to express yourself and understand others.

CO-OP EDUCATION - A program that integrates work experience in a student's field with academic studies.

COMPETENCY - A measurable skill or set of skills, level of knowledge, and behavioural practices obtained through formal, non-formal, or informal learning; ability to perform occupation-specific tasks and duties.

COMPULSORY CERTIFICATION TRADE - A designated trade that requires all practitioners in that trade to be either an apprentice or a certified journeyperson with a Certificate of Qualification in that trade.

CONTRACT WORK - Work that is done for a specific period of time and an agreement is drawn between the employer and the worker.

CREDENTIAL - Documented evidence of learning based on completion of a recognized program of study, training, work experience, or prior learning assessment. Degrees, diplomas, certificates, and licenses are examples.

CURRICULUM - A framework of course content delivered by an educational institution.

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DESIGNATED TRADE - A trade identified as an apprenticeable occupation by the board regulation.

DIPLOMA - An award obtained by a person who successfully completes an educational and/or training program.


EMPLOYABILITY - Having the skills, knowledge and attitudes which are of value to an employer.

EMPLOYEE - A person hired by an individual or a company to work for a wage.

EMPLOYER - A person or company that hires one or more people to work for wages or a salary.

EMPLOYMENT COUNSELLING - Employment counselling refers to the process of addressing transitions by facilitating career/occupational decision-making, skill enhancement, job search, and employment maintenance. The purpose is to improve a client's employability and self-sufficiency while addressing labour market needs and contributing to Manitoba's economy.

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY - A legislated system to ensure positive steps are taken to build a diverse workforce intended to increase representation of underrepresented groups.

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS - The skills you need to enter, stay in, and progress in the world of work - whether you work on your own or as part of a team. Theses skills can also be applied and used beyond the workplace in a range of daily activities.

ENTREPRENEUR - A person who starts and operates a business, investing time and money in the hope of earning profits.

EQUITY - Fairness

ESSENTIAL SKILLS - The fundamental skills that make it possible to learn all other skills and help people participate fully in the workplace and in their daily lives. They are reading text; document use; numeracy; writing; oral communication; working with others; thinking skills; computer use; and continuous learning.

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FLEXIBLE HOURS - An agreement with employers that allows employees to set their own times for starting and finishing work to make up a previously agreed number of hours.

FORMAL LEARNING - Learning that is recognized or credited through an institution.

FULL-TIME WORK - A job with a single employer that involves 30 or more hours per week.

FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS - The skills needed as a base for further development - communicate, manage information, use numbers, and think and solve problems.


GLOBAL ECONOMY - Manufacturing, business and trading activity that occurs worldwide.

GUIDANCE - Involves providing direction and advice on options that are considered best suited to an individual's needs and support thoughtful decision-making.


HOBBY - An activity or interest pursued outside of one's regular work that could enhance employability and essential skills.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN - A document that describes the organization's human resources goals and means of achieving them over a fixed period of time. An HR plan helps management to clarify and focus on where efforts should be designated and serves as a basis for discussion, as well as offering a benchmark against which actual performance can be measured and reviewed.


INTERNSHIP - A temporary supervised on-the-job learning experience in which the intern has specific learning goals; may be paid or unpaid.

INFORMAL LEARNING - Learning acquired through work and life experience, using unstructured methods and settings.

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JOB - An exchange of services (time and effort) by an individual for pay, work experience or personal fulfillment.

JOB SHADOWING - A career exploration activity in which an individual follows an employed worker to learn more about his/her job.

JOB-SHARING - When two or more people split the duties, hours, and salary of one job.

JOURNEYPERSON - A formally certified, fully skilled worker whose combined work experience and training satisfy all the requirements demanded of those who practice in a designated trade.


LABOUR MARKET - The mechanism whereby local demand for labour (employers who need to provide goods or services) is matched with supply (individuals willing to provide their time and effort) at an agreed price (wage). Imbalances in demand and supply result in unemployment or labour shortages.

LABOUR MARKET INFORMATION - Information on conditions that affect the exchange of labour for wages. It may involve statistical data or qualitative information on aspects of the labour market such as industrial or occupational employment, wage levels, employment requirements, unemployment or labour shortages, demographics, and other aspects of labour demand or supply. The information may be used for career development purposes or for planning of employment and training programs.

LIFELONG LEARNING - All learning that is acquired throughout a person's life, including formal, non-formal, and informal learning.


MENTORING - A learning-based relationship between an experienced and competent individual and a learner who wants to acquire some similar experience and competence.

MOBILITY - The ability of a worker to transfer skill sets and competencies from one position to another or from one geographical location to another.

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NATIONAL OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATION (NOC) - A nationally accepted taxonomy and organizational framework of occupations in the Canadian labour market.

NETWORKING - Exchanging information about employment, learning and entrepreneurship opportunities with others.

NON-FORMAL LEARNING - Learning acquired in structured programs outside formal educational institutions.


OCCUPATION - A broad category of jobs with common characteristics.

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING - Human resource development or ongoing training and learning for workers delivered in the workplace. Staff development can cover everything from literacy training to management training.


PART-TIME WORK - A job with a single employer that usually requires less than 30 hours of work per week.

PEOPLE SKILLS - Managing or interacting well with others, usually including he ability to appreciate, motivate, teach and understand others, communicate clearly and listen.

PERSONAL MANAGEMENT SKILLS - The personal skills, attitudes and behaviours that drive one's potential growth - demonstrate positive attitudes and behaviours, be responsible, be adaptable, learn continuously and work safely.

POST-SECONDARY - Post-secondary education or training is essentially any education or training not provided in the K-12 system. In Manitoba post-secondary programs may be delivered by community colleges, universities, technical schools providing programs for adults, private vocational institutes, or the apprenticeship system. In a broader definition training provided by employers is also included.

PRIOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT AND RECOGNITION - A systematic process that involves the identification, documentation, assessment and recognition of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that have been developed through formal and informal means. The recognition can be used toward the requirements of an academic or training program, occupational certification or labour market entry.

PROFESSION - An occupation requiring advanced academic training and/or specialized knowledge. Often a regulating body exists for the occupation, which establishes rules for entry to practice the profession, certification or licensing.

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QUALIFICATIONS RECOGNITION - "Recognition" - formal recognition of internationally educated/trained individuals' qualifications (credentials, skills and experience) by a regulatory authority (government or self-regulating). "Recognition" - less formal recognition of internationally educated/trained individuals' qualifications (credentials, skills and experience) by employers experienced in employment and salaries that are commensurable with one's education/training and experience.


"RED SEAL" - A nationally registered trademark adopted for the Interprovincial Standards Program to signify interprovincial qualification of tradespersons at the journeyman level. It is affixed to the provincial Certificate of Qualifications of those tradespersons who have met the national standards in a "Red Seal" trade. The "Red Seal" is a passport that allows the holder to work anywhere in Canada without having o write further examinations to satisfy local trade regulations.

RESUME - A summary of personal information about an individual, such as educational background and work history, used in job search and employee recruitment.


SECTOR - A group of businesses with common activities, products or services.

SELF-ASSESSMENT - The process of evaluating one's abilities, talents and personality traits.

SELF EMPLOYMENT - Providing services and/or products to others as an independent worker, maintaining direct control over the work or services to be done and the fees to be charged and collected.

SKILL - The ability to do a particular task that comes from training, practice or natural aptitude.


TEAMWORK SKILLS - The skills and attributes needed to contribute productively - work with others, participate in projects and tasks.

TEMPORARY WORK - Applies to an employee who is employed for an assignment of a short-term nature.

TRADE - An occupation that requires manual, mechanical or technical skills.

TRADES QUALIFICATION - Workers with a minimum number of years and hours of proven experience in a trade can apply to write an interprovincial exam to qualify for certification through trades qualification.

TRANSFERABLE SKILLS - Abilities that can be useful in many different situations.


UNION - An association of workers organized to protect the interests and rights of its members.


VOLUNTEER - A person who gives his or her time, skills and talents to help others or organizations without expecting any payment.


WORK - A set of activities conducted for an employer or on one's own account, which may earn a wage or may be on a volunteer basis.

WORK DEVELOPMENT - The processes and procedures whereby workplace, employment and volunteer opportunities are negotiated on behalf of individuals and/or groups of clients.

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