Listed below in alphabetical order by title


Carbonate Hosted Lead-Zinc Mineralization in Manitoba and Possible Stratigraphic Controls on Mississippi Valley-type Deposits
K. Lapenskie (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Several examples of in situ Pb-Zn mineralization have been found in Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the Williston Basin, southwestern Manitoba. These occurrences of sphalerite and galena have spurred exploration for Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits in this basin by both the Manitoba Geological Survey and various companies. Two new occurrences of in situ mineralization with a style comparable to that in MVT deposits have been identified from drillcore. Galena and sphalerite were identified from the Red River and Winnipegosis formations, respectively. There are numerous structural and geological conditions in Manitoba that indicate that the MVT model may be applicable in the Williston Basin. The presence of platformal carbonates, evaporites, shales, karsting, and reefal structures indicate favourable conditions for MVT emplacement. The Superior boundary zone, which underlies the Williston Basin, may have acted as a source of metalliferous ore fluids and provided conduits for fluid flow.


Foundation for the Future – Update on Vale Manitoba Operations 2017
M. Scott (Vale Manitoba Operations)

Nickel price volatility, sustaining capital requirements, operating cost and productivity concerns represent long-term challenges which must be overcome to ensure the sustainability of our Manitoba Operations. All stakeholders must come together to deal head-on with these challenges and work together to control our own destiny while exercising active, genuine care for one another. Overcoming these challenges requires focus on that which is within our span of control. Despite the challenges we face, there is cause for cautious optimism as the challenges and potential solutions are known. Vale has continued to invest in positioning our operations for years of mining and milling in Thompson and in supporting the community through the ongoing transition period, building a foundation for the future in Thompson and region.


Geology of the Wasekwan Lake Area of the Lynn Lake Greenstone Belt, Manitoba: Implications for Gold Mineralization
X.M. Yang and C.J. Beaumont-Smith (Manitoba Geological Survey)

This talk presents preliminary results of 2017 field bedrock mapping in the Wasekwan Lake area in the southern belt of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt where the greenstone belt is defined by a variety of volcanic rocks comprising basalt, basaltic andesite, minor dacite and rhyolite, related volcaniclastic rocks and sedimentary rock units. The volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks display tholeiitic to calcalkaline affinities, consistent with deposition in a setting comparable to modern volcanic arcs or back-arc basins. These supracrustal rocks were involved in multiple phases of deformation and metamorphosed to middle amphibolite facies, which are cut by several intrusive suites that may have reflected different geodynamic settings during the tectonic evolution of the greenstone belt. Gold mineralization, within the Johnson shear zone and the areas nearby the shear zone, appears to be controlled by structural and chemical traps along contacts between map units of contrasting rheology. This presentation will include a discussion of the potential role of magmatism, particularly reduced I-type granodiorite intrusions and quartz feldspar porphyry dikes in late intrusive suite, in gold mineralization. The potential for magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-(Pt) mineralization hosted in gabbroic intrusions in the study area is also discussed.


Lithium Potential in Manitoba: Overview and Update
T. Martins and M.P.B. Nicolas (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Lithium, the lightest metal, has properties uniquely suited to a wide range of applications including pharmaceuticals, glass and ceramics, and aerospace technologies. A substantial increase in demand for lithium is currently driven by the manufacture of lithium batteries for use in electric vehicles. Lithium extraction is sourced from salt lake brines in South America and United States, and Li-bearing granitic pegmatites across the world with the biggest production coming from the Greenbushes pegmatite in Australia. In Manitoba, lithium was once produced from the Tanco deposit (by 1998, the mine had milled 1 million tonnes of spodumene ore) and other Li-bearing pegmatites. Lithium is not currently being mined in Manitoba but there is proven potential for lithium mineralization not only in the Archean Superior province but in the Trans-Hudson orogen as well.

Overlying the Precambrian in southwestern Manitoba is the thick sedimentary package of the Williston Basin consisting of carbonate, evaporitic and siliciclastic rocks. Within these rocks is a vast complex layered groundwater aquifer system with varying salinities and chemistries. Dissolved trace metals, including Li, are present in these saline waters. Oilfield brines (produced saline water from oil and gas operations) and deep saline waters are potential sources for Li, but current data on this in Manitoba is rare. With the right technology, oilfield brines in western Canada have shown good potential as economic sources and extrapolating that knowledge eastward shows promise for Manitoba.


Manitoba Mineral Exploration and Development Trends
C.J. Beaumont-Smith (Manitoba Mines Branch and Geological Survey)

Recovering commodity prices is fueling a recovery in mineral exploration and development investment. The presentation will highlight exploration trends, provide an overview of current exploration projects, and update the status of advanced exploration and development projects in Manitoba.


Metasomatic Haloes around Lithium Pegmatites: Case Studies from the Dibs and Dyke 1 Pegmatites
R.L. Linnen (Western University), T. Martins (Manitoba Geological Survey), C. Galeschuk (Nuterra Geoscience), N.M. Halden (University of Manitoba), M.A.F. Fedikow (Mount Morgan Resources Ltd.) and J. Singh (Orix Geoscience Inc.)

Pegmatite-hosted deposits make a significant contribution to the world's lithium supply, which has generated an interest in pegmatite exploration. It is well known that metasomatic haloes are present around rare metal lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites and the present study compares the metasomatic haloes around two Li-bearing pegmatites. Dibs is an LCT pegmatite located 4 km northeast of the Tanco pegmatite, buried at a depth of 80 m and hosted by metagabbro. The Li lithogeochemical halo is well defined, with more restricted Rb and Cs haloes. The Li-Rb-Cs contents of biotite in the metagabbro are about an order of magnitude higher than lithogeochemical values, but the Li contents of fracture chlorite is even greater. The Dyke 1 LCT pegmatite is part of a swarm of at least seven pegmatite dykes that make up the Green Bay group of the Wekusko Lake pegmatite field. A Li lithogeochemical halo is also present above the Dyke 1 pegmatite, but Rb and Cs haloes are more restricted compared to the Dibs pegmatite. The reasons for these differences are currently under investigation, including whether analyses come from drill holes that intersect spodumene- or petalite-bearing zones of pegmatites or intersect barren pegmatite zones adjacent to lithium mineralization.


Monument Bay Project Update
G. Kuntz (Yamana Gold Inc.)

During 2017, Yamana has continued to move the Monument Bay Project forward on a number fronts. We have completed an internal resource update and associated engineering trade off studies, 8,000 m of exploration drilling expanding current resources and exploring for new mineralized structures. The partnership with the University of Western and Yamana and our ongoing metallurgical programs have significantly improved both our understanding and integration between geology, geochemistry, mining and metallurgy/recovery within the Twin Lake Camp. The university created 2 BSC theses and one master's thesis that focus on the relationships between gold and other elements in the Monument Bay Deposit. During the year we continued to advance our environmental base line studies, community exploration agreement and expand our Health and Safety programs at the Twin Lakes camp. Yamana's health, safety, environment and community relations programs are integrated into all our operations. These programs support Yamana's goals of achieving zero injuries, and no significant environmental and social impacts. For the remainder of 2017 Yamana will continue to focus on advancing and de-risking the Monument Bay Project with drilling, ongoing engineering related studies and continued environmental monitoring programs.


Oxford Lake Gold Project
M. Koziol (Alto Ventures Ltd.)

The Oxford Lake property covers 36,000 ha of geology prospective for hosting BIF associated gold deposits, syn-orogenic gold deposits and gold associated with sulphide copper-zinc-silver mineralization. Alto's 2017 summer surface exploration program was completed to upgrade 2018 winter drill targets by prospecting and sampling previously underexplored targets along a 30 km trend of magnetic highs associated with BIF units which host the historical Rusty Gold Deposit and the Blue Jay gold zone. Also, gold grades at historical showings were verified and new targets were identified. In total, 803 rock grab samples were collected on the entire Oxford Lake property. The surface exposures of the original Rusty gold zone were resampled and new gold mineralization was discovered along trend approximately 10 km to the west of the Rusty deposit in the Carrot River area. Rock grab samples from the Cat Eye Bay showings returned several high grade gold-silver-copper-zinc assays from a series of historical trenches that trace mineralization for over 300 m along strike. Two new gold occurrences were also discovered. Numerous grab samples from the Hyers Island area returned high grade polymetallic mineralization. The 2017 results are being incorporated into the planning for 2018 winter diamond drilling program.


Overview of 2017 Activities of the Manitoba Geological Survey
C.O. Böhm (Manitoba Geological Survey)

This overview outlines the Manitoba Geological Survey's core functions and program, including the broad range of independent, partnered and collaborative geoscience projects undertaken in 2017. The differing scales and diversity of these projects reflect the Survey's aptitude to tackle complex geological problems posed by Manitoba's diverse geology. The presentation emphasizes the roles of the Manitoba Geological Survey within changing socio-economic and political landscapes, and the Survey's priority to build and maintain a comprehensive and authoritative geoscience infrastructure that is effective and accessible to all stakeholders, and provides avenues for partnerships and the sustainable development of Manitoba's mineral and energy resources.


Paleoproterozoic Volcanic Rocks Beneath Phanerozoic Cover South of Wekusko Lake, Manitoba: Insights from Drillcore and Geochemistry
K.D. Reid (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Twenty-five historical exploration drillcores from the area south and east of Wekusko Lake were re-examined over a three week period in the summer of 2017. Data from 20 of these drillcores were combined with data from 18 drillcores examined during the 2016 field season to provide wide-spaced coverage over a large area south of Wekusko Lake, roughly equivalent to a 1:50 000 map area. Rocks of the sub-Phanerozoic Flin Flon belt south of Wekusko Lake are divided into the Clearwater and East Kisseynew domains based on their relatively low (greenschist-amphibolite) and high (amphibolite-granulite) metamorphic-grade, respectively, both domains are known to host volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. The preservation of primary textures in the Clearwater domain allows the rocks to be subdivided into four lithologic associations: bimodal volcanic, mafic dominated, sedimentary and plutonic. Gneisses in the East Kisseynew domain rocks are not subdivided given their heterogeneity at the drillhole scale though key drillcore observations provide clues as to the protolith of some rocks. Lithogeochemistry provides insight into the bulk and trace element composition main rock types, tectonic setting, and potential for various mineral deposit types.


Re-Assessment of Drill Core from the Tower Deposit, William Lake Area, Manitoba
C.G. Couëslan (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Tower Cu-Zn-Ag-Au deposit is a pelitic-mafic or Besshi-type volcanogenic massive-sulphide (VMS) system located in the sub-Phanerozoic Thompson nickel belt (TNB). Preliminary findings suggest that the deposit is hosted in Pipe formation rocks of the Ospwagan group. A simplified stratigraphy for the deposit consists of impure chert and siliceous rock of the Pipe formation P1 member, overlain by pelite and local sulphide-facies iron formation of the P2 member. This is overlain by laminated calcareous rock and a thick sequence of impure chert, which constitutes the P3 member.

The T1 zone mineralization is discordant to stratigraphy and is hosted within the P2 member in the north and P3 member in the south. The discordancy is interpreted to result from mobilization along a late (D3-D4) structure. The T2 zone mineralization occurs near the base of a heterogeneous chlorite schist within the P3 member, which may represent a stratiform zone of sub-seafloor hydrothermal replacement.

It is suggested that mafic to ultramafic magmatism, associated with either the Bah Lake assemblage or ca. 1883 Ma Molson-age intrusions, could have provided the heat source to drive the VMS system. Volcanogenic massive-sulphide systems typically occur in clusters, suggesting that additional deposits could be found along strike from the Tower deposit.


Reconnaissance of the Munro Lake Greenstone Belt at Reekie Lake, Manitoba
C.G. Couëslan (Manitoba Geological Survey)

A one-week reconnaissance was conducted in the Reekie Lake area to evaluate reports of disseminated scheelite mineralization. Reekie Lake is located along the southern margin of the Munro Lake belt, where granodioritic rocks of the Bayly Lake complex are in sheared contact with volcanogenic rocks of the Hayes River group along a splay of the Stull-Wunnummin fault. Hayes River group rocks along the northern shore of Reekie Lake consist largely of pillowed and massive basalt, and gabbro intrusions. The southern shore is underlain by protomylonitic granodiorite–tonalite of the Bayly Lake complex and mafic sandstone of the Hayes River group. Peridotite is exposed in an isolated cluster of low reefs at the east end of the lake.

Several generations of quartz veins and a population of quartz-carbonate veins are present at Reekie Lake. At the west end of the lake, a pervasive zone of calcsilicate alteration is associated with disseminated scheelite and chalcopyrite mineralization that has yielded elevated values of Cu, Mo, W, Hg and Au. The alteration could be part of a larger zone of intense carbonate alteration reported to occur along the fault zone that defines the south margin of the greenstone belt.


Southern Indian Lake Project: Tectonic Implications and Mineral Potential
T.J. Hodder and T. Martins (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Southern Indian Lake project is at the final stages of writing and map preparation. This area is underlain by Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Trans-Hudson orogen, consisting of metamorphosed plutonic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Southern Indian domain and metaplutonic rocks of the Chipewyan domain. The geological setting and results from bedrock mapping indicate potential for volcanogenic base metals, intrusion-related gold and kimberlite-hosted diamonds.

Reconnaissance-scale kimberlite-indicator-mineral (KIM) sampling was undertaken during the 2016 field season in the Southern Indian Lake area. This is the first study to investigate the diamond potential of the region using till indicator-minerals. A total of 106 KIM grains were recovered from the 0.3–0.5 mm size-fraction of nineteen 18.9 L till samples. This includes three G9 garnets, one G11 garnet, and four diamond-inclusion spinels. These new results confirm the presence of anomalous KIM concentrations in the Southern Indian Lake area and suggest that an unknown kimberlitic source(s) is reflected in the glacial sediments of the Southern Indian Lake area.


Survey Findings from the Diamond Queen Gold Occurrence, Bigstone Lake, Manitoba
M.L. Rinne (Manitoba Geological Survey)

New mapping results from the Bigstone Lake greenstone belt in east-central Manitoba indicate significant potential for undiscovered gold mineralization near Bigstone Lake. Mapping in the vicinity of the previously discovered Diamond Queen gold occurrence revealed a series of shear-hosted quartz-carbonate-sulphide-gold veins within a package of dominantly mafic rocks assigned to the Hayes River group. Preliminary exploration targets are proposed on the basis of new results and structural interpretations.


The Geology of the Flin Flon Belt in the Reed Lake Area and its SubPhanerozoic Extension: Implications for Mineral Potential
S. Gagné (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Since the discovery of the Reed Lake Cu-rich base metal deposit in 2007, the mineral exploration industry has shown keen interest in a more detailed knowledge of the volcanic stratigraphy in the Reed Lake area, including the southern extension of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon belt beneath the Paleozoic limestone cover south of Reed Lake. In response to this interest, the Manitoba Geological Survey conducted a multiyear geoscience program that included new geological mapping (2013–2014), drillcore examination (2015–2017) and compilation of historical and recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data.

A set of two preliminary geological maps covering both the Reed Lake area and the extension of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon belt beneath the Paleozoic limestone cover to the south has been compiled. Integration of new whole-rock geochemical data with compiled geology and drillcore observations was critical in producing the new maps. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the new geological maps and discuss the newly defined lithostratigraphic domains and major structural features. In lights of the new maps, the mineral potential for massive sulfide deposits, orogenic gold and magmatic Ni-Cu mineralization has been re-evaluated and new concepts will be presented.


Till-Composition of the Kaskattama Highland Region of Northeast Manitoba
T.J. Hodder (Manitoba Geological Survey), S.E. Kelley (University of Waterloo) and M.S. Gauthier (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Kaskattama highland in northeast Manitoba is a prominent topographic high that rises 130 m above the flat-lying Hudson Bay Lowland. The region is thought to consist of thick (an inferred 223 m) Quaternary sediment cover, as observed in a single drillhole on the northwest side of the highland. This region was targeted during the 2016 and 2017 field season as part of an ongoing study of the Hudson Bay Lowland Quaternary stratigraphy in northeast Manitoba. Natural exposures of Quaternary sediments were logged and till samples were collected at a reconnaissance-scale over the region. Till samples from the highland contain elevated concentrations of undifferentiated greenstone and greywacke (UGG) clasts, as high as 55 ct. %, whereas the calcareous surface till west of the highland contains 10–12 ct. % UGG clasts. The source for theses clasts is either the Proterozoic Belcher Group, approximately 600 km east in Hudson Bay, or from unmapped greenstone and/or greywacke rocks. A total of 95 KIM grains were recovered from the 0.3–
0.5 mm size-fraction of thirty 9.5 L till samples were recovered in 2016 and 2017 results are pending.


Update on Investigations into Gypsum and High-Purity Silica Sand in Manitoba
K. Lapenskie (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Manitoba hosts many types of industrial and speciality mineral commodities; the Manitoba Geological Survey is currently re-examining gypsum and silica sand. The Winnipeg Formation contains some of the purest silica sand deposits in North America. High-purity silica sand has many industrial applications, including as a proppant for fracking. The chemical composition, sorting, and rounding of quartz sand from the Winnipeg Formation must be quantitatively assessed to determine the economic potential of this silica sand. Preliminary results indicate a wide-range in the purity and character of sand grains from the formation across the Williston Basin. Gypsum is currently used for wallboard and cement production in Manitoba. Updated structure contour and isopach maps have been generated for the Harcus-Amaranth area using available drillcore and water well data. These maps may aid industry in the exploration for new or expansion of pre-existing quarries.


Update on the Geology and Exploration Potential of the Oxford Lake–Knee Lake Greenstone Belt
S.D. Anderson (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Oxford Lake–Knee Lake greenstone belt in the Archean Superior province of northeastern Manitoba is highly prospective for a variety of commodities, yet has remained underexplored in comparison to similar belts elsewhere. In 2012, the MGS began a renewed investigation of this belt in order to improve understanding of the geology, tectonic evolution and mineral potential, and to increase exploration activity. Bedrock mapping, in conjunction with lithogeochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology, indicates that the belt is composed of five distinct lithotectonic assemblages: 1) ca. 2.9–2.88 Ga felsic volcanic rocks and tonalite–granodiorite intrusions, representing an ancient, fault-bounded, volcanic arc; 2) ca. 2.83 Ga bimodal (tholeiitic-mafic and calcalkalic-felsic) volcanic rocks, representing a primitive oceanic arc or back-arc basin; 3) ca. 2.73–2.71 Ga mafic–felsic volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks, and associated tonalite–granodiorite–granite–syenite plutons, representing a more evolved, calcalkalic–alkalic volcanic arc, built on ca. 2.83 Ga basement; 4) <2.71 Ga arc-derived sedimentary rocks, iron formation and minor basalt flows, deposited in marine intra-arc basins; 5) <2.7 Ga synorogenic sedimentary basins consisting of fluvial–alluvial sandstone and conglomerate, bounded at the base by angular unconformities. Structural analysis indicates that lithotectonic assemblages were imbricated along early thrusts, followed closely by regional isoclinal folding, synorogenic sedimentation, continued regional folding and thrusting, and development of crustal-scale brittle-ductile shear zones. This talk will provide an overview of these results as they pertain to the setting of diverse mineral occurrences in the Oxford Lake–Knee Lake belt.


Zoro Lithium Project
S. Ramnath (Orix Geoscience Inc.)

Far Resources Ltd (FAR) is focused on identifying and developing high potential mineral opportunities in stable jurisdictions such as Manitoba. FAR has been actively exploring its wholly owned Zoro 1 claim, and adjacent optioned ground from Strider Resources, located approximately 20 km east of Snow Lake, Manitoba. The property targets multiple northwest-trending lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) bearing pegmatite dykes. FAR has focused exploration on testing the historical estimate of Dyke 1 through drilling to replicate historical drillhole intersections as well as expanding the resource. The prominent Dyke 1 is zoned with a pink K-feldspar rich outer zone grading to a white albite-spodumene-quartz rich inner core where lithium is primarily hosted in pale green spodumene. Best drilling intercepts include 1.1% Li2O over 23.0m in FAR16-007 and 1.2% Li2O over 38.3m in FAR17-010. Additionally, prospecting on the property has identified new lithium bearing dykes between Dykes 2-7. Grab samples taken from Dykes 2-7 have assayed up to 6.4% Li2O. Recently, interpretation of Mobile Metal Ion (MMI) soil sampling has indicated that additional buried lithium bearing dykes may be present, which will be the focus of winter work. Supplementary to the Lithium potential for the property is new evidence for elevated Tantalum at 0.11% Ta2O5 in FAR16-001. FAR is adequately funded for the winter program ahead.

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