INVENTORY FILE NO.
NAME OF PROPERTY
(Lith Nos. 11 and 12)
1988 - Tantalum Mining
Bernic Lake, Manitoba R0E 0G0
37.5% interest – Hudson
Bay Mining and Smelting Co., Limited
37.5% interest – Kawecki Berylco
25% interest – Province of Manitoba
The Tanco pegmatite, which is host to the deposit, occurs in the
Archean Bird River greenstone belt which is comprised of metavolcanic, related
and derived metasedimentary rocks of the Rice Lake Group. The areas north, east
and southwest of the belt are occupied, respectively, by the Maskwa Lake,
Marijane Lake and Lac du Bonnet batholiths (Crouse et al., 1979).
pegmatite was emplaced, cogenetic with the Lac du Bonnet intrusion, as a
bi-lobate shallow north-dipping, doubly plunging feature, into the core of a
synclinorium. The core is composed of interlayered polymictic metaconglomerate,
metavolcanic rocks and iron formation; synvolcanically intruded by large stocks
of composite nature of gabbro, diorite, quartz-feldspar porphyry and
granodiorite (Crouse et al., 1979).
The pegmatite occupies an almost
horizontal cross-cutting fracture in near vertical dipping amphibolites, forming
a flat, tabular body (Tanco, 198l) that has been traced E-W for l440 m, and N-S
for 820 m, and is slightly more than l00 m thick (Cerny, 1982; Bannatyne, 1985,
From a large-scale viewpoint the internal structure of the pegmatite
exhibits nine zones of different mineral composition, texture and location plus
a zone of contact exomorphism in the wallrock. Some of the outer zones appear to
be concentric envelopes, but the inner zones occur as more or less discontinuous
layers (confined to the upper central parts of the pegmatite). In detail the
structure, however, shows a complex array of mineral assemblages and thus the
nine zones are an over-simplification (Crouse et al., 1979).
minerals occur in economic quantities in the albitic aplite zone, the central
intermediate zones (referred to broadly as the microcline-quartz-mica zone), and
the lepidolite zone. The most important of these zones is the central
intermediate zone in which two lenticular bodies have been mined. The "Shaft
Area" is 300 m long with an average width and thickness of 122 m and l5 m,
respectively. The top of the orebody is at 60 m and the lowest intersection l50
m below Bernic Lake. The "West Area" is 125 m long, 105 m wide and l4 m thick.
Its top is at 67 m and lowest intersection 124 m below Bernic Lake (Northern
Miner, April 17, 1969). The West orebody contains significant amounts of
microlite with a Ta2O5 content of 73%, usually found as a thin 'smear' on gangue
minerals, and simpsonite. The Tanco pegmatite is known to contain approximately
75 mineral species including seven tantaliferous minerals: wodginite, varieties
of microlite, ordered and disordered tantalite, tapiolite, simpsonite, and
stibiotantalite (Burt et al., 1982). Wodginite is the main tantalum mineral
(Foord, 1982). (See also: Trueman and Turnock, 1982).
pegmatite, according to Penner and Clark (197l) is approximately 2.6 billion
Another pegmatite body (370 m x 900 m, and up to 47 m thick) known
as the lower Tanco pegmatite occurs below the main Tanco pegmatite: it has an
easterly strike, and a shallow dip to the north (Ferreira, 1984). It hosts
Li-Rb-Cs-Ta-Nb-Sn-Ti mineralization. Mineral species known to occur include
quartz, albite, microcline-perthite, muscovite, lithian muscovite, Rb-Cs-rich
zinnwaldite, spodumene, tourmaline, triphylite-lithiophilite, beryl, apatite,
ixiolite (as the main tantalum mineral), disordered tantalite, cassiterite,
zircon (with up to 10% HfO2), sphalerite (with up to 2.l8 wt% Cd), pollucite,
montmorillonite-chlorite, bityite (a 'Be-rich' mica), uranian microlite (with
Pb, Th, Na, and up to 8% UO2) (Olson and Cerny, 1982; Ferreira, 1984).
and cassiterite have been reported in small pegmatites exposed at the surface
(Bannatyne, 1972). (See Mineral Inventory Card 52L/6 SN 2).
MINERALS OR PRODUCTS OF VALUE
Beryllium, lithium, cesium, gallium, rubidium, tin, quartz, feldspar,
EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
The deposit is located in two separate zones at the west end of Bernic
Lake. One zone named "Shaft Area" is immediately south of the shaft and the
other zone (approximately 400 m west of the "Shaft Area") named "West Area".
Neither zone outcrops at surface and the "Shaft Area" is partly under Bernic
Lake while the "West Area" is totally under water. The deposit is accessible by
road from the west, a branch off of Provincial Road No. 315.
It was because
of their stratigraphic position that neither zone was found until after the
latest stakings over them. The "Shaft Area" is located within the boundaries of
Lith No. 12 (W21671) while the "West Area" is located within Lith No. 11
(W21670). For previous work in the vicinity of tantalum deposits, see Mineral
Inventory Cards 52L/6 SN 2, LI 8 and CS l.
Early in 1967, Chemalloy Minerals
Limited reached an agreement with A.G. Kilchherr of Basle, Switzerland, to
supply funds for additional diamond drilling and dewatering the underground
workings so that an evaluation of the tantalum zone could be made. Under the
terms of the agreement, title to the cesium stayed with Chemalloy Minerals
After the shaft had been dewatered in April 1967, a bulk sample,
from channel samples cut underground, was sent to Ottawa for concentration
tests. The sample graded 0.37 to 0.45% Ta205 and was concentrated to 50% Ta205
from which 5 to 6 kg (11 to l3 lbs) of tantalum was obtained. By May, 1967, 450
tonnes (500 tons) of tantalum-bearing material had been hoisted and 73 tonnes
(80 tons) with an average grade of 0.33% Ta205 sent to Ottawa. A total of 227 kg
(500 lbs) concentrate were obtained and samples sent to Union Carbide and CIBA
Corp. (Chemical Industry in Basle).
A.G. Kilchherr assigned its commitment to
spend $l00 000 U.S. dollars on the property to Goldfield Corp. of New York along
with a 40% interest in the property, if it was brought into production.
June 22, 1967, the Northern Miner reported that drifts and diamond drilling on
less than "l00-foot (3l-m) centres" had indicated in the shaft area and above
the 250 m (820 ft) level, 256 080 tonnes (282 200 tons) probable ore grading
0.28% Ta205, plus 67 600 tonnes (74 500 tons) possible ore grading 0.25%. Below
the 250 m (820 ft) level there exists l03 900 tonnes (114 500 tons) possible ore
grading 0.22% Ta205 and 366 m (1200 ft) west of the shaft 490 497 tonnes (540
528 tons) indicated and inferred ore grading 0.33%. In order to test these
figures, 74 vertical holes and l6 underground holes in the "Shaft Area" and 19
vertical holes in the "West Area" were drilled. The results of this program
indicated l 77l 040 tonnes (1 951 686 tons) at 0.23% Ta205. On the basis of
these results a new company was formed,
Tantalum Mining Corporation of Canada
Limited (Tanco), in which Chemalloy Minerals Limited held 40% interest through
its Canadian subsidiary, Northern Goldfields Exploration Limited. An
experimental gravity survey was done over the orebody in 1968 and later in 1977
(see Mineral Inventory Card 52L/6 LI 8).
The first shipments of tantalum
concentrate began in August 1969, and the official opening of the mine was on
the 8th of September. The method of mining was the open stope method on a
room-and-pillar pattern, from a 20% ramp decline. The milling capacity was 800
tonnes per day in 1969.
Late in 1969, Tanco contracted to ship 45 360 kg (100
000 lbs) of pollucite ore containing a minimum 20% Cs20 to Russia. Because the
pollucite ore was not included in the main agreement in the formation of Tanco,
a 25% royalty was paid to Chemalloy Minerals Limited prior to the 60-40
corporate split. Early in 1970, Tanco received another order for pollucite ore
from the Soviet Union. This brought sales to 199 580 kg (440 000 lbs) of
pollucite containing 45 360 kg (l00 000 lbs) of cesium oxide.
A year after
the mine was opened a complex legal situation developed between various
companies that had contributed funds to the mining operation. In February 1971,
most of the litigation was dismissed when Chemalloy purchased from Goldfield
Corp., New York, the remaining 60% of Tanco. Shortly afterward, it was announced
that a new tantalum orebody had been found lying parallel to, but 46 m (150 ft)
below the bottom of the one that hosts the ore from which all production had
been drawn. One hole, a vertical boring, cut ore between 152-156 m (500-512 ft)
grading 0.19% Ta205, while 55 m (180 ft) away the other hole cut ore between
148-155 m (485-5l0 ft), grading 0.24%, including a 5-m (15-ft) section from
148-152 m (485-500 ft) running 0.40% (Northern Miner, February 10, 1972).
February 1972, Tanco obtained a loan from the Manitoba Development Corporation
to construct a mill for the production of lithium concentrates. A month later
"holes L-6 and L-7 located l000 feet (305 m) from the first two holes and 50
feet (15 m) apart in a north-south direction averaged 0.17% tantalite over 8
feet (2 m) and 0.20% tantalite over 21 feet (6 m)" (Northern Miner, March 9,
The final litigation was resolved in July 1972, when Tanco agreed to
pay General Host Corp. $5 million at 5% simple interest, over a period of 10
years, out of production. In addition, the Manitoba Development Corporation
agreed to buy a 15% interest in the mine for $1.5 million and guaranteed some of
the obligations of Tanco and Chemalloy for an additional 10%
According to the Northern Miner (June 14, 1973), "Tantalum reserves
at Dec. 31, 1972 were 1 419 576 tons (1 288 l80 tonnes) 0.224% Ta205 of which
388 460 tons (352 505 tonnes) grading 0.23% Ta205 was estimated to remain in
As of June 14, 1973, the mine had been developed by a 169-m
(553-ft) three-compartment shaft used for hoisting ore, two main levels at 86 m
(282 ft) and 133 m (436 ft), and a decline, used as an access route by the
miners, which was down to 130 m (425 ft) only a few metres (feet) away from the
second level. The lower haulage way had been driven 381 m (1250 ft) from the
shaft to the West orebody, and development of the upper level had been started,
following the hanging wall of the spodumene orebody, about 64-70 m (210-230 ft)
below surface (Northern Miner, June 14, 1973).
A lithium pilot plant was in
operation from March to December 1973 (Canadian Mines Handbook, 1987-88, p.
The presence of gallium has been known in several of the Bernic Lake
pegmatite zones and of the approximately 136 120 tonnes (150 000 tons) of
tailings produced annually at the mine it is estimated that about 6800 kg (15
000 lb) gallium contained in concentrate can be removed (Northern Miner, June
14, 1973 in Chemalloy, Corporation File). "Gallium occurs in micas in the
tailings and also in the lepidolite zone in concentrations of the order of 500
ppm" (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 49). Gallium reserves as of December 31, 1982 are
estimated at 674 000 tonnes in tailings, with a grade estimated at 54.9 g/t (1.6
oz/ton) (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 44).
The 454-tonne (500-ton) tantalum mill
started production in April 1969, reaching capacity in September 1969.
Production ceased in 1973. (See History of Production figures). In January 1974
production resumed at 635 tonnes (700 tons) per day.
Simpson (1974) examined
113 beryl samples which he took from the wall zone, lower intermediate zone,
lepidolite zone, and central intermediate zone. The latter zone contains the
maximum concentration of beryl. If a suitable flotation method were found for
the separation of beryl it could be extracted economically as a by-product in
the tantalum operation. Beryllium reserves as of December 31, 1982 are reported
as 834 625 tonnes (920 000 tons) grading 0.21% BeO (Bannatyne, 1985, p.
On January 11, 1975, the previous leases (M-7542, M-7546) of the Lith
Nos. 5, 11, 12 claims fell under Production lease Nos. 7, 8, 9 comprising 593
ha, 579 ha, 492 ha respectively, which were issued to Tanco for a period of ten
The economic value of the mill tailings has been monitored since the
mine began production. From 1969-1974, the tailings assayed 0.06l - 0.088% Ta2O5
and consisted of 675 000 tonnes of material. Until the end of 1978, the tailings
grade was still higher than 0.05% Ta2O5. Drilling carried out in 1978 on the
older part of the dam outlined 360 000 tonnes of tailing grading at 0.07% Ta2O5.
A 40% recovery from the tailings to a concentrate of 25% Ta2O5 or better was
In late 1979, a $1 million mill-expansion program was begun to
increase milling capacity to 900 tonnes per day, and to permit reprocessing of
tantalite tailings at l86 tonnes per day. The incorporation of a flotation
circuit was also planned.
In 1980, 499 m (1636 ft) of drifting to outline
lower grade zones in the Shaft orebody was done, as well as 2134 m (7000 ft) of
diamond-drilling in the West orebody area (Canadian Mines Handbook, 1984-1985,
p. 367). Reserves as of January 1, 1980 were estimated as tantalite - 1 100 000
tonnes grading 0.15% Ta2O5 (Zahalan, 1980). December 31, 1980 reserves (proven,
possible and probable) were l 098 000 tonnes (1 210 000 tons) averaging 0.14%
Ta205; stored tailings, 724 140 tonnes (798 000 tons) averaging 0.07% Ta2O5
(Canadian Mines Handbook, 1981-82).
Normal annual production of mine ore is
maintained by stockpiling in summer and drawing on stockpile in winter. Mine
tonnage was stabilized at 830 tonnes/day, and reduced to 820 tonnes/day during
April 1981. "Tantalite concentrates, with mill recovery of 73% grading between
35 and 40% Ta2O5" were produced until December, 1982 (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 49)
(see: History of Production figures). A 30% Ta slag (or Ta metal) was reported
as a potential product.
Since 1980, 30 800 tonnes of tailings were treated,
and a further 50 000 tonnes were processed during the summer of 198l when a
recovery of over 55% was achieved (Fleming et al., 1982). A tantalum recovery of
76.76% was recorded in November, 1981. In the summer of 1981, the lower Tanco
body was opened by underground mining operations; "it has been documented by a
dense pattern of drillholes." (Olson, 1981, p. 21).
The original two-stage
gravity concentrator plant has evolved into a more complex gravity plant; a
flotation plant has been recently introduced (Flemming et al., 1982).
Mineralogical studies of triphylite-lithiophilite (Fransolet et al., 1982), and
of apatite (Cerny et al., 1982), in the Tanco pegmatite started during
On December 31, 1982, operations suspended indefinitely due to
high product inventory and weak market conditions. Tantalum reserves as of
December 31, 1982 were reported as (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 44):
a) Underground 1 047 000 0.144% Ta2O5
b) Tailings 647 000 0.065%
Pre-production 1 879 136 0.216% Ta2O5
An estimate of ore
reserves prepared by Tanco's geologists as of January 1, 1983, is:
Proven 353 000 0.179
Probable 652 000 0.105
Proven 327 000 0.065
Probable 375 000 0.065
1983 reserves (proven, possible and probable) were reported as: 980 940 tonnes
(l 081 000 tons) averaging 0.138% Ta2O5; stored tailings 637 020 tonnes (702 000
tons) averaging 0.065% Ta2O5 (Canadian Mines Handbook, 1987-88, p.
Ownership of Tanco changed over the years, starting as a 60/40 joint
venture in 1967 between The Goldfield Corp and Chemalloy Minerals. In 1971
Chemalloy purchased Goldfield's 60% interest. The Manitoba Government acquired
25% ownership of Tanco in 1972. Chemalloy subsequently sold 24.99% of its
interest to Kawecki Berylco Industries; and after Chemalloy went into
receivership in 1975, Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Co., Limited obtained a
37.5% interest in Tanco in 1978, with Kawecki holding 37.5% and the Manitoba
Government 25%. Under the terms of an agreement Hudson Bay became manager of the
About 60% of tantalum concentrates are sold to the Reading,
Pennsylvania-based Kawecki Berylco Industries division of Cabot Corp. under a
long-term contract. Although mining has been suspended since 1982, some sales of
stockpiled tantalite concentrates were made in 1985 and 1986. The spodumene
plant was brought on line in 1986 (see 52 L/6 LI 8).
On November 30, 1987,
Tanco announced it would re-open the mine by mid-1988 (June) (The Leader,
December l, 1987). Tanco will spend about $4.7 million on refurbishing the mine
and mill, completing a spodumene mill and upgrading power and water services
(Northern Miner, December 7, 1987). Several multi-year contracts for tantalum
concentrates will take effect mid-1988.
When in operation, the mine is
expected to produce 108 860 kg (240 000 lbs) of tantalum concentrate and 6800 kg
(15 000 lbs) of spodumene concentrate, annually (Winnipeg Free Press, December
4, 1987). Regulation 59/88 concerning the shipment of tantalum, cesium and
rubidium was passed in January 1988 (see: Remarks). Tanco is also considering
the feasibility of adding potassium and sodium feldspar to its production list
(Gunter and Segard, 1987).
Year Tonnage Milled Concentrate Produced
tonnes (tons) % Ta205 kg
1970 138 365 (152 478) 0.226 143 800 (317 024) 51.55
163 800 (180 505) 0.137 156 120 (344 186) -
1980 a) 147 200 (162 212) 0.136
134 950 (297 512) -
b) 31 560 (34 779) 0.055
1981 a) 137 890 (151 950)
0.122 134 825 (297 234) -
b) 49 980 (55 074) - - -
1982 a) 128 860 (142
000) 0.125 - -
b) 34 480 (38 000) 0.067 - -
Note: a) ore; b)
Ta2O5 in concentrate shipped in 1982 totalled 59 280 kg (130 683
lbs). As of April l, 1983, approximately 124 290 kg (274 000 lbs) Ta2O5 remained
Production history of tantalite, 1969 - 1983.
Bannatyne, 1985, p. 5)
103 1980 127 000*
1970 143 802 1981 103 949**
197l 203 943 1982 59
1972 18 652 1983 Nil
1973 77 376
1974 198 877
1976 139 833
1977 139 757
1978 158 776
*reported as 115 26l kg (Manitoba Mines Branch, Annual Report
**reported as 104 000 kg (Manitoba Mines Branch, Annual Report
***reported as 125 tonnes (Canadian Minerals Yearbook 1982).
Bannatyne, B.B., 1972: Pegmatite project; in Summary of Geological
Fieldwork 1972; Manitoba Department of Mines, Resources and Environmental
Management, Mines Branch, Geological Paper 3/72, p. 50-53.
minerals in rare-element pegmatites of Manitoba; Manitoba Energy and Mines,
Geological Services, Economic Geology Report ER84-1, p. 5, 43-49.
1979: Tantalum Mining Corporation's gravity concentrator - recent development;
The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), v. 72, No. 809
(September), p. 103-108.
Burt, R.O., Flemming, J. and Trueman, D.L., 1982:
Ore processing at Tantalum Mining Corporation; in Granitic Pegmatites in Science
and Industry, ed. P. Cerny; Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course
Handbook 8, p. 495-504.
Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 1982: Columbium (niobium)
and tantalum; Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Mineral Report 32, p.
Canadian Minerals Yearbook 1983-1984: Review and Outlook; Energy, Mines
and Resources Canada, Mineral Report 33, p. 59.1.
Canadian Mining Journal,
1979: "Tantalum mining to expand production to 250 000 tpy"; v. 100, No. 12, p.
Cerny, P., 1982: The Tanco pegmatite at Bernic Lake, southeastern
Manitoba; in Granitic Pegmatites in Science and Industry, ed. P. Cerny;
Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Handbook 8, p.
Cerny, P. and Macek, J., 1972: Coloured potassium feldspars; in The
Tanco Pegmatite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba, ed. L.G. Berry; The Canadian
Mineralogist, v. 11, Part 3, p. 679-689.
Cerny, P., Povondra, P., Fryer, B.J.
and Chapman, R., 1982: Apatite in the Tanco pegmatite, Bernic Lake, southeastern
Manitoba; University of Manitoba, Centre for Precambrian Studies, Annual Report
1982, Project B-15, p. 111.
Cerny, P. and Siivola, J., 1980: The Tanco
pegmatite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba; The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 18, Part 3, p.
Cerny, P., Trueman, D.L., Ziehlke, D.V., Goad, B.E. and Paul,
1981: The Cat Lake-Winnipeg River and the Wekusko Lake pegmatite
fields, Manitoba; Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, Mineral Resources
Division, Economic Geology Report ER80-1, p. 87-93, 152-153.
Crouse, R.A. and
Cerny, P., 1972: Geology and paragenesis; in The Tanco Pegmatite at Bernic Lake,
Manitoba, ed. L.G. Berry; The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 11, Part 3, p.
Crouse, R.A., Cerny, P., Trueman, D.L. and Burt, R.O., 1979: The
Tanco pegmatite, southeastern Manitoba; The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical
Bulletin (CIM Bulletin), v. 72, No. 802 (February), p. 142-150.
1955: Geology and mineral deposits of the Bird Lake area; Manitoba Mines Branch,
Publication 54-1, 44p.
Dawson, K.R., 1974: Niobium (columbium) and tantalum
in Canada; Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report No. 29, p.
Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1987: Mining and mineral
processing operations in Canada; Mineral Bulletin MR 216, p. 21.
K.J., 1984: The mineralogy and geochemistry of the lower Tanco pegmatite, Bernic
Lake, Manitoba, Canada; M.Sc Thesis, University of Manitoba.
Mills, C. and Burt, R.O., 1982: Tanco's rare metal concentrator; Canadian Mining
Journal, v. 103, No. 3, p. 40-47.
Foord, E.E., 1982: Minerals of tin,
titanium, niobium and tantalum in granitic pegmatites; in Granitic Pegmatites in
Science and Industry, ed. P. Cerny; Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short
Course Handbook 8, p. 211, 218, 220, 225.
Fransolet, A.M., Cerny, P.,
Hawthorne, F.C. and Chapman, R., 1982: Triphylite - lithiophilite in the Tanco
pegmatite at Bernic Lake, southeastern Manitoba; University of Manitoba, Centre
for Precambrian Studies, Annual Report 1982, Project B-14, p. 110-111.
J.D., Cerny, P. and Ferguson, R.B., 1972: Wodginite, tantalite, pseudo-ixiolite
and related minerals; in The Tanco Pegmatite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba, ed. L.G.
Berry; The Canadian Mineralogist, v. 11, Part 3, p. 609-642.
Gunter, R. and
Segard, S., 1987: Industrial minerals of Manitoba; Manitoba Energy and Mines,
Minerals Division, Open File Report OF85-7, p. 4.
Howe, A.C.A., 1968:
Canada's first tantalum producer; Western Miner, v. 41, No. 12, p.
Howe, A.C.A., 1972a: Exotic minerals at Bernic Lake, Manitoba;
Canadian Mining Journal, v. 93, No. 4 (April), p. 69-70.
(Tantalum Mining Corporation of Canada Limited),1972b: Geology and economic
aspects of the Chemalloy Minerals pegmatite deposit, Bernic Lake, Manitoba; The
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, CIM Annual Meeting (April, 1972),
Ottawa; abstract in The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM
Bulletin), v. 65, No. 719 (March), p. 59.
Leader, The, Lac du Bonnet, 1985:
(June 4, November 5), 1987 (December 1), 1988 (March 29).
The, 1988: (February 2), Regulation 59/88; v. 117, No. 6.
a. Corporation Files; Cabot Corporation; Chemalloy Minerals Limited;
Tantalum Mining Corporation of Canada Limited; Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting
Co., Limited (Annual Reports 1985, 1986; Notice to Shareholders, May 14, 1983,
b. Mineral Inventory Cards; 52L/6 SN 2, LI 8, TA 1.
Non-confidential Assessment Files; File Nos. 91555, 91556.
d. Annual Reports;
1981-82 - p. 25; 1982-83 - p. 26; 1983-84 - p. 16, 32.
Mineral Policy Sector,
Corporation Files: "Tantalum Mining Corporation of
K.J., 1981: The lower Tanco pegmatite at Bernic Lake, southeastern Manitoba;
University of Manitoba, Centre for Precambrian Studies, Annual Report 1981,
Project B-13, p. 21.
Olson, K.J. and Cerny, P., 1982: The lower Tanco
pegmatite at Bernic Lake, southeastern Manitoba; University of Manitoba, Centre
for Precambrian Studies, Annual Report 1982, Project B-13, p.
Penner, A.P. and Clarke, G.S., 1971: Rubidium-strontium age
determination from the Bird River area, southeastern Manitoba; in Geoscience
Studies in Manitoba, ed. A.C. Turnock; Geological Association of Canada, Special
Paper No. 9, p. 105-110.
Simpson, F., 1974: The mineralogy of pollucite and
beryl from the Tanco pegmatite at Bernic Lake, Manitoba; M.Sc Thesis, University
of Manitoba (copy in GSC library MR 8255.S 61).
Springer, G.D., 1950: Mineral
deposits of the Cat Lake-Winnipeg River area; Manitoba Mines Branch, Publication
Trueman, D.L., 1976: Gravimetric survey of the Tanco pegmatite;
University of Manitoba, Centre for Precambrian Studies, Annual Report 1976,
Project B-10, p. 40, 43.
Trueman, D.L. and Turnock, A.C., 1982: Bird River
greenstone belt, southeast Manitoba: geology and mineral deposits; Geological
Association of Canada - Mineralogical Association of Canada, Joint Annual
Meeting (Winnipeg, Manitoba), Field Trip Guidebook, Trip No. 9, p.
Winnipeg Free Press, December 4, 1987, "Tantalum mining resuming
operation as demand grows".
Winnipeg Free Press, February 23, 1988, "Manitoba
mines hit record yields".
Zahalan, R.G., 1980: Mining in Manitoba; Manitoba
Department of Energy and Mines, Mineral Resources Division, Educational Series
ES80-3, p. 30-33.
#Map 52L/6, West, Ryerson Lake (Topographic), Scale 1:50 000, Mines
& Technical Surveys, Canada.
Map 1194 G, Ryerson Lake (Aeromagnetic),
Scale 1:63 360, Manitoba Mines Branch and Geological Survey of Canada.
49-7, Cat Lake-Winnipeg River area (Geology), Scale 1:63 360; accompanying
Report by Springer (1950), Manitoba Mines Branch.
Map 54-1, Bird Lake area
(Geology), Scale 1:12 000; accompanying Report by Davies (1955), Manitoba Mines
Preliminary Map 1975 F-9, Bird River area East (Geology), Scale 1:31
680, by D.L. Trueman, Manitoba Mines Branch.
Map ER80-1-1, Cat Lake-Winnipeg
River pegmatite field (Geology), Scale 1:100 000 - Accompanying Report by Cerny
et al.(1981), Manitoba Mineral Resources Division.
Map ER80-1-3, Winnipeg
River pegmatite district (structural geology), Scale 1:50 000; accompanying
Report by Cerny et al.(1981), Manitoba Mineral Resources Division.
Series NW 6, 52L, Scale 1:31 680, Mining Recording, Manitoba Mines
Mineral Inventory Cards 52 L/6 SN 2, LI 8, CS 9 and TA l form a
January 25, 1988, Production lease No. 7, 8, 9 were
exempted from subsection 9(1) of the Mines Act with respect to tantalum oxide
shipments for a 5-year period starting February 1, 1984; to cesium ore shipments
not exceeding 1000 tonnes annually and rubidium ore not exceeding 500 tonnes
annually for a 5-year period starting June 1, 1987 (Manitoba Gazette,
"Other potential products include feldspar for dental spar,
amblygonite as a ceramic glaze and feldspathic sand from reprocessed tailings
for bottle glass. Rubidium-rich lepidolite, containing about 3% Rb2O will have
to await development of markets as current world consumption is less than 5
tonnes annually. Abundant quartz is present in essentially monomineral
concentrations in the Tanco pegmatite, and reserves are estimated at 700 000
tonnes." (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 49). Quartz reserves as of December 3l, 1982 were
reported as 708 340 tonnes (Bannatyne, 1985, p. 44).
First suggested in
unpublished reports on Ta-ore concentrates, zircon was later found in a
hand-specimen from the spodumene zone in the spring of 1975, and later in Ta-ore
concentrates. Hafnian zircon is found in albite unit (3), inside the central
intermediate zone (6), in lepidolite unit (9), occasionally in the
spodumene-rich upper intermediate zone (5) (Cerny and Siivola, 1980). Hafnian
zircon with about 17 wt% HfO2 was reported in zone (3) (Cerny, 1982, p.
For cross-sections of the lower Tanco pegmatite, and a mine-plan: see
JDB AGJ HRW JDB HRW AGJ PA
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