Technical Program/Abstracts

Listed below by session

Consultation, Exploration and Mining: A Manitoba Perspective

Opening Session

Development Highlights

Exploration and Geoscience Projects: Trans Hudson Orogen

Exploration and Geoscience Projects: Superior Province and Thompson Nickel Belt

Short Course: Geology and Mineral Potential of Manitoba's Premier Mineral Belts: Flin Flon-Snow Lake Belt

Other 2013 links

d2013 Speakers

 

Consultation, Exploration and Mining: A Manitoba Perspective

Chief Ron Evans

No abstract available

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Aboriginal Engagement in North Western Ontario
A. Drapack (Osisko Mining Corporation)

Osisko is currently completing an environmental assessment for an open pit gold mine in Northwestern Ontario. A total of thirteen Aboriginal communities expressed a potential interest in the Project. The Project is in the traditional territory of the Anishinaabe Nation and is also identified by the Métis Nation of Ontario as a traditional harvesting territory. Osisko signed formal agreements with both the First Nations and the Métis in the area. Our approach to Aboriginal engagement was outlined in these agreements and developed in collaboration with our Aboriginal partners. The key principles behind our engagement activities are respect and recognition of constitutionally recognized treaty and Aboriginal rights. Since 2010 the Hammond Reef outreach program has included multiple community events, site tours, workshops, meetings, and negotiations sessions. We believe that our transparency, collaborative approach and hands on approach towards engagement and consultation have led to Osisko being recognized by our Aboriginal partners and local communities as “a leader in Canada in developing relationships and working with First Nations”.

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Community Engagement: Honesty, Respect, Mutual Sharing and Contribution
R. Land (Vale)

In November 2010, Vale announced that as part of its planned $10 billion investment in Canada and a realignment of its Base Metals business, its Manitoba Operations in Thompson would be transitioning from a fully integrated operation to mining and milling only by 2015. In order to ensure the sustainability of the community and in the interests of further diversifying the economy with mining as a strong economic pillar, Vale fully funded and co-launched with the City of Thompson, the Thompson Economic Diversification Working Group. Over a period of nearly two and a half years and with the help of consultants from rePlan, TEDWG engaged in over 20,000 hours of community and stakeholder engagement which resulted in enduring stakeholder relationships and multiple economic diversification action plans for Thompson and its region. A key foundational document for the process and for Vale’s ongoing engagement of its regional communities and stakeholders is the Thompson Aboriginal Accord and Vale adheres to the Mining Association of Canada’s Towards Sustainable Mining principles, practices, performance measures and protocols.

No video available

 

Consultation, Exploration and Mining: A Manitoba Perspective
A. Desgroseilliers (AMEC Environment & Infrastructure)

Why should a mining company implement an engagement program even during exploration? What are the risks of not doing it? What does Consultation involve? When do you start that process? Where do you begin? Engagement is an important step that precedes the Consultation process. The lack of effective Stakeholder engagement has become the most likely barrier to successful project implementation. This presentation will outline the differences between engagement and Consultation and summarize an appropriate process for each. The risks of not following the process will be described and the social and regulatory reasons for participating in engagement and Consultation will be explored. Projects must meet Provincial as well as Federal requirements (permits and licenses) including Environmental Assessment.  Each of these has specific requirements for consultation by both the proponent and the Crown. Knowing when and where to begin and how to acquire the needed information can significantly affect how easily the project obtains licenses and permits.

No video available

 

MGS Liaison Program: Building Communication Bridges
L.A. Murphy (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Liaison programs through government initiatives and industry partnerships develop a proactive process to bring people together and help improve respectful communication. An effective communication bridge will minimize potential impacts and mutually benefit First Nation communities, the mineral resource sector and all Manitobans. Long term communication bridges that provide solutions for each First Nation and the mineral industry are strengthened by encouraging Elder-youth dialogue, acknowledging historical land use trends and participating in respectful discussions in each community.

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NMMA Exploration Technician Program: Blurring the Lines between Industry and Education
R. Penner (Northern Manitoba Mining Academy)

The Exploration Technician Program at the Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA) is now in its second intake of students. The first cohort (winter, 2012-2013) of this program proved highly successful as all of the students in the program (n = 8) gained employment within the exploration industries of northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Much of this success, however, rises from the partnerships integral to the NMMA. The program was, and is, developed, instructed, and monitored by industry experts working in partnership with the NMMA. This provides a concrete example of moving towards the original vision of the NMMA, namely, where industry, education, and government would combine forces to produce knowledgeable and skilled human resources for the mining industry. Such partnerships are critical to these kinds of programs and demonstrate the on-going need to continue to blur the lines between industry and education for the good of Manitoba’s mining industry.

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Towards a Manitoba Mining Strategy
S.L. Rollins (Manitoba Mineral Resources)

Mineral Resources continually monitors its program suite with the view towards capitalizing on commodity prices and the global demand for Manitoba’s minerals. The department has determined that a new strategy is required to reverse recent declines in exploration investment by stabilizing the political climate with clear and decisive response to calls for action on revenue sharing, consultation, permitting, and increased engagement and communications efforts on all fronts. 

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Vale Manitoba Operations: Exploration, Development and Engagement Activities
Mark Scott (Vale)

No abstract available

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Opening Session


James B. Wilson

No abstract available

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Manitoba Mineral Exploration and Development Trends 2013
C.J. Beaumont-Smith (Minerals Policy and Business Development)

Persistent low commodity prices and challenging equity markets have resulted in revised exploration and development decisions affecting the mineral exploration and mining sectors in Manitoba. In spite of this, mineral exploration and development projects continue to advance, positioning Manitoba for a robust recovery from the downturn. The presentation will highlight exploration trends, provide an overview of current exploration projects, and update the status of advanced exploration and development projects in Manitoba.

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Overview of 2013 Activities of the Manitoba Geological Survey
C. Böhm (Manitoba Geological Survey)

In 2013, the Manitoba Geological Survey completed new bedrock mapping at Oxford Lake as part of a multi-year program to remap some of the largest contiguous greenstone belts in the northwestern Superior province. In the Pikwitonei domain to the north, new bedrock mapping at Cauchon and Partridge Crop lakes aimed at interpreting protoliths of the granulite-grade rocks for comparison with potential lower-grade equivalent rocks in the adjacent crustal domains. Bedrock mapping in the Trans Hudson orogen continued in the Snow Lake area alongside collaborative programs with the Geological Survey of Canada and university partners. The Manitoba Geological Survey also undertook new work to better define the setting of various commodities across the province: gold in the Rice Lake belt, rare metals in a number of areas in the Trans Hudson orogen, and magmatic base metals and platinum group elements in the Bird River belt in southeast Manitoba. Phanerozoic investigations in southwest Manitoba focused on bentonite dating, evaluation of the rare earth element potential and stratigraphic correlations of upper Cretaceous units. In the Hudson Bay Lowland in northeast Manitoba, lithofacies of a Silurian Formation with petroleum reservoir potential was analyzed in detail. Quaternary geology mapping and sampling, designed to support mineral explorationists in heavily drift covered areas, focused in 2013 on a large tract of land east and northeast of Southern Indian Lake. In addition, Quaternary mapping was started in the Gillam area in preparation for a larger program planned for next year. In addition to the geoscience projects, the Manitoba Geological Survey engaged with First Nations through the Community Liaison program and launched a new and exciting geoscience website, www.ManitobaRocks.info, to connect with youth and kids. None of this work would have been possible without the contributions from the entire Manitoba Geological Survey team including cartography and GIS, client services, rock lab, support and administration, and students.

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Development Highlights

Geotechnical Monitoring at Tanco Mine
C. Deveau (Tantalum Mining (Cabot Corp.))

Tanco is the world’s primary source and largest reserve of Cesium. The ore is processed at Tanco for the production of cesium formate and other cesium brines. Tanco, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cabot Corporation, is situated at Bernic Lake, 60 km Northeast of Lac du Bonnet. In March of 2013, Tanco experienced a major fall of ground (estimated 2500 mt). This occurred in a sensitive area directly beneath Bernic Lake. In order to mitigate the risk to men and the operation, a program utilizing 6 different methods of measuring any movement of rock in the mine was put in place. This presentation will discuss the 6 techniques which have been used at Tanco to evaluate the integrity of the mine allowing for safe mining to resume.

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Hudbay Now
B. Lantz (Hudbay)  

In December 2013, Hudbay will celebrate 86 years of continuous mining in Manitoba. The discoveries of the Lalor and Reed deposits will allow for Hudbay to sustain mining in Manitoba for several years to come. Hudbay has committed $794M in capital expenditures to build the Lalor Project. A new mine site with a new 4,500 tpd concentrator and infrastructure that will support the area for several years. Hudbay has also committed $72M in capital expenditures to build and develop the Reed Copper Project. A new mine site and infrastructure and U/G development to support a 1,300 tpd mine. Continued exploration in the Flin Flon Greenstone Belt combined with new improvements in exploration techniques will find more resources. Hudbay has to position itself for the next generation of mines, this means overcoming today’s challenges that face all sectors of mining and exploration. To continue to be environmentally responsible, with shared economic benefits for of Manitoba.  Hudbay Now – Manitoba, represents a portion of the overall strategic growth profile representing Hudbay. A company with growth oriented projects that supports the overall corporate initiatives of long life deposits, providing benefits to stakeholders and positioning itself for share holder growth.  

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San Gold: Modern Infrastructure, Margins Key Amid Gold Price Uncertainty
I. Berzins (San Gold Corporation)

The Rice Lake Gold Mine located in Bissett, Manitoba began production in 1935 and to-date has produced over 1.6 million ounces of gold. Since acquiring the Rice Lake assets from Harmony Gold in 2005, San Gold has invested over $300 million into surface and underground infrastructure as well funding an aggressive regional exploration program. San Gold produced 86,500 oz of gold in 2012 and is positioned to produce between 75,000 and 90,000 ounces on an annualized basis going forward. The company recently doubled the nameplate capacity of its on-site mill to approximately 2,500 tons per day and has a mining rate from its underground workings of between 1,500 and 2,000 tons per day. The majority of the current mill feed is coming from deposits that were not even known to the company six years ago and the Company has increased its global resource during this time to approximately 3.5 million ounces of gold. This presentation will discuss the progress the Company has made over the past six month in improving grade and stabilizing production levels while reducing costs across all aspects of the company in order to optimize margins per ounce and find the most direct path to achieving free cash flows.

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Exploration and Geoscience Projects: Trans Hudson Orogen

Callinex Mines Exploration Update in Manitoba
D. Legault (Callinex Mines Inc.)

Callinex Mines holds more than 40,000 hectares in claims across Manitoba and believes that in the current market, the best projects consist of high-grade multi-elements deposits with high in-situ value per ton.  Flin Flon and Snow Lake are prolific mining camps that host several deposits that fit those requirements.  The recent discoveries of Lalor Lake and Reed Lake indicates that the potential for new discoveries is there, maybe just a little deeper than explored in the past.

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Developing a Mine in Manitoba with First Nation and Local Partners
Bruce Reid (Carlisle Goldfields Limited)

No abstract available

No video available

 

Myths & Misunderstandings: Separating the Buckwheat from the Bear
S. Jackson and H. Urton (Bimaadin Giishig Inc.)

With continued exploration and mining development in Northern Manitoba there continues to be a divide between First Nations and the industry sector. Contributing to the divide, are a number of myths and misunderstandings. What are some common myths and misunderstandings?

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Rare Metals in the Trans-Hudson Orogen, Manitoba
T. Martins (Manitoba Geological Survey)

In the scope of studying rare metal occurrences in Manitoba (initiated by the Manitoba Geological Survey in 2011), field work in the summer of 2013 included an examination of pegmatites at Southern Indian Lake, Partridge Breast Lake, and South Bay. Also included in this study was examination of the Thorsteinson Lake fluorite-bearing granite. Previously reported values of Au, Ag, Bi, Zn, Be in pegmatites at Southern Indian Lake suggest exploration potential. This association may indicate an analogy to the Fort Knox Mine in Alaska, USA where the gold deposit is associated with a granitic environment and pegmatites. Other examples of polymetallic deposits are described in Gold Hill mining district, USA, where Au, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo and W were produced from their numerous mines. The pegmatites at South Bay were described in further detail taking into account their mineralogy, internal structure, and relationship with the country rock. Results obtained from grab samples in previous work reveal enrichment in Be, Nb, Ta, and Cs. This could indicate a possible pegmatite field with Li, Ca and Ta affinity. This talk will give a brief introduction on rare metals and it will focus primarily on the rare metals occurrences found in the Trans-Hudson Orogen of Manitoba.

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The Arsenopyrite Stockpile at Snow Lake Manitoba: Mining Solutions for a Greener Planet
M.A. Mihychuk (BacTech Manitoba Corp.)

BacTech is a pioneering, environmental technology company that has developed and commercialized a proprietary technology to remediate highly toxic tailing areas resulting from abandoned mining operations. BacTech's core technology, called "bioleaching", employs naturally-occurring bacteria, harmless to both humans and the environment, to oxidize the sulphide materials left behind after years of mining. The tailings may contain ores and related materials contaminated by arsenic and other substances that are poisonous to humans and animals, as well as harmful to the local environment. The sulphides in the tailings react (oxidize) with the atmosphere to create an acidic solution called acid mine drainage (AMD), which leaches into the surrounding area over time. BacTech's bioleaching process can stabilize these toxins from minerals and prevent additional harmful AMD. In December 2011, BacTech Environmental signed a contract with the Mines Branch of the Manitoba Department of Innovation, Energy and Mines, to remediate a stockpile of arsenopyrite concentrate located in the community of Snow Lake  The Company's bio-oxidation technology has been used successfully in the gold industry for many years to aid the extraction of gold from arsenical concentrates, while stabilizing arsenic values into a benign form.

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The Paleoproterozoic Lalor Auriferous VMS Deposit, Snow Lake, Manitoba: Geology and Geochemistry of the Host Rocks and Hydrothermal Alteration Zones
A. Caté (Institut national de la recherche scientifique–Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE)), P. Mercier-Langevin (Geological Survey of Canada), P-S. Ross (INRS-ETE), S. Duff and M. Hannington (University of Ottawa), B. Dubé (Geological Survey of Canada), and S. Gagné (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Lalor auriferous Zn-Cu-Ag VMS is the largest deposit of the Snow Lake camp with reserves of 15.1 Mt at 7.2% Zn, 0.6% Cu, 1.9 g/t Au and 23.3 g/t Ag and resources of 12 Mt at 2.6% Zn, 0.9% Cu, 4.0 g/t Au and 27.8 g/t Ag. The deposit consists of highly-strained, stacked massive to semi-massive Zn-Cu±Au, Au-Cu and Au zones that are hosted in intensely and extensively altered volcanic and intrusive rocks. Most of the primary features in the footwall succession were obliterated by superimposed hydrothermal and tectonometamorphic events. However, using detailed mapping of mineral assemblages and structural fabrics in conjunction with extensive lithogeochemistry along a number of key sections makes it possible to precisely map the lithological units and the nature and distribution of hydrothermal alteration zones. Preliminary results indicate that several distinct mafic to felsic units of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinities are present in the host succession. These units were subjected to complex, multiphase hydrothermal events responsible for Mg-, Fe-, K- and Ca-bearing alterations and Ca metasomatism of varying intensity and distribution. The important gold endowment and the unique geologic characteristics of the Lalor deposit represent an ideal case to document and better understand gold enrichment processes in the VMS environment.

No video available

 

The Reed High-Grade Copper Deposit: From Discovery to Production
M. Fedikow, N. Richardson, J. Pattison, J. Roozendaal (VMS Ventures Inc.),  A. Bailes (Bailes Geoscience)

The Reed Copper Project is located approximately 80km by paved highway southwest of the mining town of Snow Lake, Manitoba. In  2007 VMS optioned claims CB5503 and FRE 5030 from Hudson Bay Exploration and Development and flew a VTEM electromagnetic and magnetic survey over approximately 1,800 line km that resulted in the definition of several anomalous geophysical responses. Shortly thereafter VMS drilled Reed discovery hole RD-07-02 in 2007 to a depth of 270m to test an 800m long southwest-trending VTEM anomaly. The hole intersected 33.50 m of 5.38% copper and 1.95% zinc. The Reed volcanogenic massive sulphide-type deposit is located in a Paleozoic-covered portion of the eastern end of Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic Flin Flon greenstone belt. The belt is located within the Trans-Hudson Orogen, a major, >450km wide, Paleoproterozoic orogen that extends from South Dakota, through western and north-western Manitoba. The Flin Flon Belt is interpreted to be comprised of a variety of distinct 1.92 to 1.88Ga tectonostratigraphic assemblages including juvenile arc, back-arc, ocean-floor and ocean-island, and evolved volcanic arc assemblages that were amalgamated to form an accretionary collage prior to the emplacement of voluminous intermediate to granitoid plutons and generally subsequent deformation (Syme et al., 1998).  The volcanic assemblages (Amisk Collage) consist of mafic to felsic volcanic rocks with intercalated volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. The younger plutons and coeval successor arc volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary successor basin rocks include the older, largely marine turbidite of the Burntwood Group and the terrestrial metasedimentary sequences of the Missi Group. The Reed deposit is interpreted to be a stacked set of three tabular zones of copper rich mineralization that consists of fine to medium-grained disseminated to solid sulphides consisting of pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and magnetite. The deposit is located beneath the Paleozoic cover at the eastern end of the prolific  meta-volcanic Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon greenstone belt in central Manitoba. The Reed deposit occurs within Precambrian basaltic metavolcanic rocks. Mineralization is generally fine to medium-grained disseminated to solid sulphides consisting of pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and magnetite in three stacked but distinct tabular copper-rich lenses. The upper two lenses (Zone 30 and Zone 20) trend approximately 300° and dip 75° to the northeast. The lower lens (Zone 10) trends 270° and dips 80° to the south. The sulphide intersections range from 2.00 m up to 72.51 m in core length. Mineralization has been intersected over a strike length of 430 m and to 550 m below surface. Alteration minerals include muscovite, tremolite, limonite, biotite, epidote, ankerite, ilmenite and talc. VMS Ventures and Hudbay entered into a joint venture agreement on July 5, 2010 in which both companies agreed to combine four claims giving Hudbay a 70% interest and VMS a 30% interest in a 917ha area that hosts the Reed deposit. Hudbay is the operator and has overall management responsibility for the joint venture. The Reed mineral resource will be extracted using longhole open stoping mining and the stopes will be backfilled with unconsolidated waste. Concentrating  and  processing  of  the  ore  will  be  done at the Hudbay Flin Flon concentrator. The life of the Reed Mine will be approximately 5 years at a production rate of 1,300 tonnes/day. The Reed Mining Reserves are currently estimated as:

Mineral Zone

Reserve
Category

Tonnes

Gold
g/tonne

Silver
g/tonne

Copper %

Zinc %

30

Probable

270,910

1.424

15.95

2.16

2.42

20

Probable

1,022,136

0.349

4.87

3.98

0.48

10

Probable

864,330

0.332

4.28

4.17

0.15

Total

Probable

2,157,375

0.477

6.02

3.83

0.59

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The TGI-4 3D-3C Seismic Survey Over the Lalor VMS Deposit: Initial Results and Outlook
Gilles Bellefleur (Geological Survey of Canada)

No abstract available

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Exploration and Geoscience Projects: Superior Province and Thompson Nickel Belt

Carbonatite Discoveries in the North-Western Superior Craton in Light of Manitoba’s Unexplored Rare-Metal Potential
A. Chakhmouradian (University of Manitoba)

Recent detailed (in both scale and methodology) work of MGS geologists in collaboration with the University of Manitoba shows that the northwestern part of the Superior craton was affected by postcollisional magmatism following the amalgamation of the craton in the Late Archean and its collision with other terranes in the Early Proterozoic. The emplacement of diverse carbonate magmas was an important part of that magmatism, suggesting multiple episodes of subcratonic mantle re-fertilization through subduction. These new discoveries not only shed new light on the petrogenesis of carbonatites, but also indicate that eastern Manitoba holds great, but as yet little explored, potential for rare earths and other resources associated with postcollisional mantle-derived magmatism.

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Geology of the Partridge Crop Lake Area, Eastern Margin of the Thompson Nickel Belt
C.G. Couëslan (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Geological mapping was conducted in the Partridge Crop Lake area in July and August of 2013. This area was subjected to relatively uniform, high-grade Neoarchean metamorphism and deformation, and was variably overprinted by high-grade Paleoproterozoic metamorphism and deformation. Archean rocks in the area include mafic gneiss, pelitic and semipelitic gneiss, and a variety of granodioritic to tonalitic gneisses. Proterozoic rocks consist of diabase dikes, melasyenite, several granitoid plutons, pegmatitic and aplitic granite dikes, and carbonate rocks of uncertain affinity. Rocks of uncertain age include a metasedimentary sequence with similarities to the Ospwagan Group and a graphitic and sulphidic pelite. A roughly east-west-trending, subvertical Archean gneissosity is transected at a high angle over much of the area by a subvertical north-northeast-trending Paleoproterozoic foliation. The Paleoproterozoic deformation becomes increasingly intense towards the west where the Archean gneissosity is transposed into the Paleoproterozoic foliation.
Sedimentary sequences similar to the Ospwagan Group, exposures of sulphidic ultramafic amphibolite, and loose cobbles of serpentinized dunite suggest the area could be prospective for magmatic nickel deposits. Gossanous zones associated with iron formation, carbonate alteration, Mg-Fe alteration, and garnetite in mafic gneiss suggest potential for Archean gold and base metal (VMS) mineralization. Carbonatite-like bands could prove prospective for rare metals.

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Monument Bay Gold – Tungsten Project
G. Kuntz (Mega Precious Metals Inc.)

Mega is defining Canada’s newest Gold-Tungsten district in NE, Manitoba at its flagship property the Monument Bay Project.  In June 2013 Mega published a 43-101 update of the resources and the deposit currently hosts 2.9 M Measured and Indicated Ounces at 1.3 g/t gold and Inferred Resources of 0.7 M Ounces of gold.  There is greater than 140 kms of gold/tungsten bearing structures on the property with multiple new targets for bulk tonnage and high grade gold/tungsten.  All deposits are open for expansion along strike and at depth.  The key principles behind our engagement activities are respect and recognition of constitutionally recognized Treaty and Aboriginal rights.  Mega believes that our transparency, collaborative and hands on approach towards engagement and consultation have enabled us to ensure that traditional activities and areas of cultural significance are protected and respected. Further to this, the permits received from the Manitoba Government provide for continued engagement with Aboriginal communities. Mega has continually improved its environmental footprint through key environmental monitoring programs such as initial heritage studies, aquatic and terrestrial testing, stream flow monitoring, water quality program, land use studies and the bulk fuel handling program, installation of pellet stoves and boiler and the waste management program.

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Mustang Minerals – Bird River Project 2013
R. Dunbar (Mustang Minerals Corp.)

Mustang Minerals Corp. (TSXV – “MUM”) is exploring and developing its Mayville and Makwa Projects in the Bird River Greenstone belt of southeast Manitoba. The corporate objectives for 2013 are to complete a scoping study which will examine combining production from the Makwa and Mayville deposits which are located approximately 30 km apart. Exploration during 2013 consisted of several ground geophysical programs as well as an airborne VTEM survey, with drilling and follow up mapping program over the underexplored eastern part of the Mayville Complex. The Company presentation will provide a corporate update and present the results of the exploration program.

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New Insights from Textural, Petrographic, Geochemical and Geochronological Investigations of Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks of the Bird River Greenstone Belt, Southeastern Manitoba
V. Bécu, M.G. Houlé (Geological Survey of Canada-Quebec), V. J. McNicoll (Geological Survey of Canada-Ottawa), X.M. Yang and H.P. Gilbert (Manitoba Geological Survey)

Mafic and ultramafic intrusions are widely distributed within the southern (SA) and northern (NA) arms of the Bird River greenstone belt (BRGB) in southeastern Manitoba. Nine main intrusions occur over a strike length of ~75 km, and host significant Ni-Cu-(PGE) magmatic sulphide and chromite deposits/occurrences. Other, mostly non-mineralized, synvolcanic and glomeroporphyritic gabbroic rocks are also present across the BRGB. Although the absolute and relative ages of some of these intrusions are uncertain, a correlation between the main mafic-ultramafic intrusions, in occurrence the Bird River sill (SA) and the Mayville intrusion (NA), has been proposed by several workers.  Preliminary textural, petrographic and geochemical investigations tend to support this interpretation and to extend it to other mafic-ultramafic intrusions located within the SA and NA arms of the BRGB. Combine to new geochronological results, this strongly suggest that the main mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the BRGB all derived from a single large magmatic event that extended across the entire belt. Different emplacement mechanisms and magmatic evolutionary paths may be evoked to account for the variations in internal stratigraphy and styles of mineralization characterizing each intrusion.

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Preliminary Results of Bedrock Geological Mapping in the Cat Lake-Euclid Lake Area, Southeastern Manitoba: Implications for Geodynamic Evolution and Metallogeny
X.M. Yang (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Cat Lake-Euclid Lake area is situated in the northern arm of Neoarchean Bird River greenstone belt that hosts significant base-, precious-, and rare-metal minerals. This area is underlain by a suite of greenstone assemblage to the south, and by a suite of metasedimentary rocks and derived gneissic, weakly foliated to massive granitoids to the north. The greenstone assemblage consists of supracrustal rocks including mafic volcanic and synvolcanic intrusive rocks, epiclastic and minor volcaniclastic rocks, and mafic–ultramafic intrusions. The older granitoid batholith and greenstones are intruded and/or dismantled by a Neoarchean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and late peraluminous granitoid rocks and associated pegmatites. The 2013 detailed bedrock geological mapping established the temporal and spatial relationships of ten geological units and associated mineral potential. The preliminary results suggest that magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr mineralization is associated with the Neoarchean (~2743 Ma) mafic-ultramafic system(s) that may have been emplace in an extensional setting at continental margin; potential porphyry Cu (Au) and skarn Cu-Au (Ag) mineralization is related to some of the granitoid phases in the TTG suite which may have been formed in magmatic arc; and rare metal pegmatite mineralization is exclusively associated with younger peraluminous granitoid intrusions emplaced into a continental collision environment.

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Stratigraphic and Structural Setting of Gold Deposits in the Vicinity of the Central Manitoba Mine, Rice Lake Greenstone Belt, Southeast Manitoba
X. Zhou (University of Waterloo)

The Rice Lake greenstone belt is situated in the western portion of the Uchi subprovince of the Archean Superior province and is the most important lode gold district in Manitoba. The southeast portion of this belt includes several gold deposits, most of which are clustered in the vicinity of the past-producing Central Manitoba mine. In the summer of 2013, detailed geological mapping (1:5000) was carried out in this area in order to better understand the stratigraphic and structural setting of the gold deposits. Based on this work, a revised stratigraphic sequence is proposed and several generations of deformation structures are recognized. This presentation provides an overview of these results, and includes a brief discussion of possible metallogenic processes based on the stratigraphic setting, structural geology, alteration zonation, and style of mineralization.

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Stratigraphy, Structure and Economic Potential of the Eastern Extension of the Rice Lake Mine Trend, Rice Lake Greenstone Belt, Southeastern Manitoba
S.D. Anderson (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Rice Lake mine trend (RLMT) is the most important lode-gold camp in Manitoba and includes several significant orogenic gold deposits. In 2013, the eastern extension of the RLMT was remapped (1:10 000 scale), taking advantage of a forest fire that burned across a 6.5 km wide swath of favourable stratigraphy in 2011. Felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, turbiditic epiclastic rocks, pillowed and massive Fe-tholeiitic basalt flows, and associated subvolcanic intrusions in the map area mostly correspond to the ca. 2.73–2.72 Ga Rainy Lake Road (RLR) unit. The RLR unit is intruded by the synvolcanic Ross River pluton (RRP) and dips steeply north on the north limb of a regional anticline, which is truncated to the north by the crustal-scale Wanipigow fault (WF). Submarine turbidites and basalt flows in the RLR unit are thought to record incipient rifting of an older (ca. 2.75–2.73 Ga) arc–back-arc complex, leading to the development of an intra-arc basin that is prospective for exhalative base-metal sulphide deposits. Early deformation structures, including pervasive shape fabrics and rare folds, record northeast–southwest shortening, whereas later structures record a change in kinematic frame to northwest–southeast shortening, which was accommodated by dextral transcurrent shear along the WF. Auriferous shear-hosted quartz veins are spatially associated with the north margin of the RRP, indicating the importance of anisotropy and competency contrast in localizing gold. These controls are also evident farther up-section in the RLR, where Fe-tholeiitic basalt flows and gabbro sills are intercalated with turbiditic epiclastic rocks and are considered highly favourable, and perhaps overlooked, exploration targets.

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Stratigraphy, Structure and Economic Potential of the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake Greenstone Belt at Oxford Lake, Northwestern Superior Province, Manitoba
S.D. Anderson, P.D. Kremer and T. Martins (Manitoba Geological Survey)

As the largest greenstone belt in the northwestern Superior province, the Oxford Lake–Knee Lake belt is central to understanding the stratigraphy, tectonic evolution and economic potential of a large and geologically diverse region that includes some of the most prospective yet under-explored greenstone belts in the Superior craton. In 2012, the MGS initiated a project to remap the western portion of the belt at Oxford Lake. This new mapping indicates that the supracrustal rocks constitute four tectonostratigraphic assemblages, each characterized by different associations of lithofacies, and are disposed in several fault-bounded panels. Crosscutting relationships of intrusions suggest at least three broad ages of volcanism and sedimentation, perhaps associated with two major orogenic events. Mesoscopic structures record four episodes of ductile deformation, which included macroscopic isoclinal folding and the development of late dextral shear zones. New results from fieldwork in the northeast portion of Oxford Lake in 2013 include: 1) a revised stratigraphy for the seemingly monotonous mafic-flow–dominated lower section of the Carghill assemblage; 2) documentation of lithofacies in shoshonitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks in the upper section of the Carghill assemblage; 3) improved understanding of contact relationships and the structural geometry of overlying coarse-clastic sedimentary rocks of the Thomsen assemblage. This talk will provide an overview of these results as they pertain to the setting of base- and precious-metal occurrences at Oxford Lake, and a general assessment of the regional economic potential.

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Till Composition and Implications for Drift Exploration, Knee Lake-Oxford House Area
M.S. Trommelen (Manitoba Geological Survey) 

In 2012, the Manitoba Geological Survey (MGS) commenced Quaternary fieldwork in the Knee Lake area of northeastern Manitoba. The project builds on an already substantial amount of Quaternary data for this area, collected during the MGS Operation Superior project (1999-2001). Analyses of field data and till composition (clast lithology, matrix geochemistry, kimberlite indicator minerals) aims to determine the relationship between the orientation of erosional ice-flow indicators (striae), streamlined landforms (drumlinoid ridges) and till composition (clast and geochemistry of the matrix).  Understanding these relationships is key for successful drift prospecting in northern Manitoba, as these relationships will help determine the effect of major ice flow directions on erosion, deposition and transport distances.
Beige, calcareous silty till is widespread throughout the study area. The calcareous subglacial detritus within this till was sourced from either the east or northeast, and transported (c.f. 100 km) to the study area during the penultimate glaciation and/or south-westerly ice flow in the Late Wisconsinan. More work needs to be completed in the surrounding regions, but it appears that till between Knee Lake and Semmens Lake generally contains an elevated component of local subglacial detritus (>95th percentile of granitoid and Dubawnt supergroup erratics) than the surrounding region. These clasts were transported south and south-easterly to the study area, during early ice-flow phases in the Late Wisconsinan or the penultimate glaciation. This hybrid till is brown, red-brown, grey or beige, non-calcareous or weakly-calcareous, and has a silty-sand matrix. These sites were protected (not diluted or reworked) from the ice-flow phases that transported substantial calcareous subglacial detritus to the area. Weakly-calcareous (3.3% of sites) and non-calcareous (2.9% of sites) tills are ‘more prospective’ and may be ‘truer’ indications of local mineral potential. As such, detailed attention must be paid to Ca% (INAA), total CO3% (chittick or calcium-magnesium) and/or CaO% (ICP total digestion) concentrations during drift exploration analyses. Calcareous till samples with moderate to elevated metal concentrations may be more prospective than non-calcareous till samples with high metal concentrations, and the two populations should not be statistically treated as one dataset. Furthermore, in the Knee Lake area, the orientation of widespread streamlined landforms should not be used as an indicator of ice-flow transport direction for local to regional-scale drift exploration.

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Understanding the Structural Framework at Rice Lake and Implications for Near-Mine Exploration Targeting
M. Michaud (San Gold Corporation)

The Rice Lake mine in southeastern Manitoba has produced in excess of 1.6 million ounces of gold since the 1930’s. The development of a refined geologic model that better defines the structural controls on gold mineralization has resulted in the recent discovery of an additional 3 million ounces of gold. The mine is located within the Rice Lake greenstone belt at the western end of the Wanipigow fault in the Uchi Sub-province, within a package of intermediate volcanic flows and sediments. Ore is currently being mined along two lithological horizons, first, within a moderately north dipping, gabbroic unit, termed the San Antonio Unit (SAM) that is host to the historic Rice Lake mine; and second, within a recently discovered sub-parallel basalt, namely the Shoreline Basalt. It is interpreted that local gold-bearing quartz-carbonate veins are preferentially developed in competent lithological units such as the SAM and Shoreline Basalt after at least the initial increments of the regional D4 deformation episode; specifically, where those units are cut by east-northeast trending shear zones and associated conjugate northwest trending shears. Additionally, significant gold mineralization has been discovered along these same shear zones where folding or dilation occurs within the surrounding intermediate volcanic host rock.

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Victory Nickel’s Minago Project: Creatively Building a New Industry in the Province of Manitoba
D. Mchaina (Victory Nickel Inc.)

Victory Nickel’s flagship asset is the 100%-owned Minago nickel/frac sand project, located on Manitoba’s Thompson Nickel belt on Highway 6, approximately 225 km south of Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. Victory Nickel released the Minago feasibility study on the open-pittable portion of the deposit in 2009, and in 2011 the company obtained an Environment Act Licence for the Minago mine. Since that time, Victory Nickel has been optimizing the feasibility study results and working to finance construction of the Minago mine in what was, and remains today, an extremely challenging financing market environment for the mining industry. This paper will focus on the optimization and continual improvement approaches used at Minago to enhance the economics of the feasibility study and the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives undertaken to work with communities of interest including the Norway House, Pimikamak, Mosakahiken and Misipawistik Cree Nations, the Metis Federation of Manitoba and Northern Communities. It will also discuss the company’s creative strategy to build a viable, cash-flowing frac sand marketing business outside of Manitoba with a goal of generating cash flow to help finance development of the Minago mine and ultimately to build a new industry – frac sand – in the province of Manitoba by unlocking the long-term value of the Minago premium frac sand resource.

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Short Course: Geology and Mineral Potential of Manitoba's Premier Mineral Belts: Flin Flon-Snow Lake Belt

Effects of Metamorphism on Alteration Assemblages and Implications for VMS Exploration
D. Tinkham (Laurentian University)

A significant number of known VMS deposits occur within metamorphosed terranes and the mapping of metamorphic minerals and textures that develop within hydrothermally altered rocks in the VMS environment is a common technique used in the exploration for these deposits. Some hydrothermally altered rocks develop very distinctive mineral assemblages and textures at low grades of metamorphism that simplify the identification of hydrothermal alteration zones, yet it remains difficult to identify some styles of alteration unambiguously using rock observations alone, particularly in weakly altered rocks. A significant difficulty arises at high grades of metamorphism (upper amphibolite and granulite facies) where associated deformation is commonly intense and silicate rocks have experienced partial melting. This talk presents an overview of the effects of metamorphism of common styles of alteration at various metamorphic grades, highlights the difficulties in identifying chemically altered rocks at high grades of metamorphism, and presents the results of thermodynamic calculations that can help identify hydrothermally altered rocks at high metamorphic grades.

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Exploration Approaches for Base Metal Massive Sulphide Type Mineralization in the Sub-Phanerozoic Flin Flon Greenstone Belt: The Reed Copper Deposit
M. Fedikow, N. Richardson, J. Pattison, J. Roozendaal (VMS Ventures Inc.), A. Bailes (Bailes Geoscience)

The Reed Copper Project is located approximately 80km by paved highway southwest of the mining town of Snow Lake, Manitoba. In  2007 VMS optioned claims CB5503 and FRE 5030 from Hudson Bay Exploration and Development and flew a VTEM electromagnetic and magnetic survey over approximately 1,800 line km that resulted in the definition of several anomalous geophysical responses. Shortly thereafter VMS drilled Reed discovery hole RD-07-02 in 2007 to a depth of 270m to test an 800m long southwest-trending VTEM anomaly. The hole intersected 33.50 m of 5.38% copper and 1.95% zinc. The Reed Mining Reserves are currently estimated as:

Mineral Zone

Reserve
Category

Tonnes

Gold
g/tonne

Silver
g/tonne

Copper %

Zinc %

30

Probable

270,910

1.424

15.95

2.16

2.42

20

Probable

1,022,136

0.349

4.87

3.98

0.48

10

Probable

864,330

0.332

4.28

4.17

0.15

Total

Probable

2,157,375

0.477

6.02

3.83

0.59

The Reed volcanogenic massive sulphide-type deposit is located in a Paleozoic-covered portion of the eastern end of Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic Flin Flon greenstone belt beneath approximately 25 m of dolomite, sandstone and wet swamp and thick organic overburden.  The Reed deposit is hosted within basaltic volcanic rocks and is interpreted to be a stacked set of three tabular zones of copper rich mineralization that consist of fine to medium-grained disseminated to solid sulphide pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and magnetite. The upper two lenses (Zone 30 and Zone 20) trend approximately 300° and dip 75° to the northeast. The lower lens (Zone 10) trends 270° and dips 80° to the south. The sulphide intersections range from 2.00 m up to 72.51 m in core length. Mineralization has been intersected over a strike length of 430 m and to 550 m below surface. Alteration minerals include muscovite, tremolite, limonite, biotite, epidote, ankerite, ilmenite and talc. VMS Ventures approach to exploration that led to the discovery of the Reed deposit and ongoing exploration in the belt has its roots in conceptual geological thinking with the subsequent application of modern geophysical and geochemical technologies to provide integrated multivariate drill targets. Tracing the Sub-Phanerozoic extension of the Flin Flon belt and its mineralized zones beneath Paleozoic dolomite and sandstone was the initial challenge. Both geophysical and geochemical technologies were assessed at the Reed site to provide focus for future exploration in this environment. These technologies included airborne and ground geophysical techniques such as Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic and magnetic surveys (VTEM) with DeepEM time domain ground geophysical surveys. Drill holes are further assessed with Bore Hole Electromagnetic surveys (BHEM). Gravity and I.P. have also been attempted on the property. Both innovative and traditional soil geochemical approaches were also attempted to characterize and prioritize geophysical responses in the Reed landscape environment. The lack of outcrop required that out of necessity soil geochemical techniques were emphasized. These included aqua regia/B-Horizon, Enzyme Leach, Soil Gas Hydrocarbons (SGH), Mobile Metal Ions (MMI) and snow geochemistry. The experience of VMS Ventures exploration approach in the belt is reviewed for this workshop.

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Geological Evolution of the Eastern Flin Flon Domain - A Structural Collage Composed of Sub-Domains with Contrasting Mineral Potential
A. Bailes (Bailes Geoscience)

The Eastern Flin Flon Domain is a zone of tectonic interleaving of 1.85-1.83 Ga sedimentary rocks of a successor arc marginal basin (Kisseynew Domain) with 1.90-1.88 Ga volcanic rocks of the Flin Flon Belt. It is located at the southeastern margin of the exposed part of the internal zone of the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen, near its boundary with the Archean Superior Craton. Between 1.84-1.82 Ga, the Eastern Flin Flon Domain was complexly deformed during folding, tectonic inversion and intercalation of the Kisseynew Domain marginal basin sedimentary rocks with older arc and ocean floor volcanic rocks of the Flin Flon Domain. Between 1.82 and 1.81 Ga, the northern and northeastern portion of the Eastern Flin Flon Domain was metamorphosed at high grade conditions at low to medium pressure. The result is that the Eastern Flin Flon Domain consists of disparate volcanic assemblages, each with differing mineral potential, which are juxtaposed in a complexly deformed and metamorposed structural collage. Understanding the structural, stratigraphic, and lithotectonic  evolution of the individual volcanic sub-domains in this structural collage is key to accessing their individual economic potential.

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Gold-Rich VMS Systems: Key Characteristics and Implications for Exploration
P. Mercier-Langevin (Geological Survey of Canada), B. Dubé (Commission géologique du Canada), M. Hannington (Université d’Ottawa), and V. Bécu (Commission géologique du Canada)

Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits contain variable amounts of gold, both in terms of average grade and total gold content, with some VMS deposits hosting world-class gold mines with more than 100 t Au. Various examples will be presented in order to illustrate the principal characteristics of gold-rich VMS systems, including the geologic, volcanic and geodynamic context, the hydrothermal alteration and mineralization styles, gold distribution, etc. Some key geologic and genetic parameters will be discussed in terms of potential implications for exploration in Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts.

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Metallogeny of Orogenic Gold Mineralization in the Flin Flon Belt and the South Flank of the Kisseynew Domain
S. Gagné (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Flin Flon belt is well-known for its wealth of base metals deposits. The area is also well-endowed in gold. It is host to one of the largest Paleoproterozoic lode-type gold deposit of Manitoba, the New Britannia gold mine. Orogenic gold mineralization is observed throughout the Flin Flon belt and along the south flank of the Kisseynew Domain. Although, the New Britannia Mine is the flagship deposit, there are also several other significant deposits and numerous gold occurrences across the belt. A review of the major deposits will be presented to highlight the principal characteristics of orogenic gold mineralization in the Flin Flon belt and along the south flank of the Kisseynew Domain. Discussion of key geological features and structural characteristics of orogenic gold mineralization will focus on their significance for gold exploration.

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Strategic and Industrial Mineral Potential of the Flin Flon-Snow Lake Belt
J.D. Bamburak (Manitoba Geological Survey)

The Manitoba portion of the exposed Proterozoic Flin Flon-Snow Lake greenstone belt is known to host an impressive array of strategic and industrial minerals (spodumene, scheelite, talc, garnet, chromite, molybdenite, pitchblende, etc.). These minerals, in turn, have been used or potentially could be used to produce a wide variety of strategic and industrial mineral commodities (lithium carbonate, tungsten, uranium, etc.). Some of these commodities have been, or could be, produced as a by-product (sulphur, arsenic, etc.) or co-product (tellurium, selenium, cadmium, gypsum, etc.) of base and precious metal mining and/or processing. The strategic and industrial mineral potential of the Flin Flon-Snow Lake greenstone belt, lying to the south of the Phanerozoic-Precambrian contact, beneath Paleozoic cover, is essentially unknown. However, potentially economic strategic and industrial mineralization may have been encountered during the drilling of base and precious metal exploration drill holes into the buried Precambrian terrane. The overlying Paleozoic cover rocks, above the belt, may also contain additional strategic and industrial minerals (silica sand, marble dimension stone, Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn, kimberlite, etc.), which should be contemplated, when core is recovered during the drilling of the underlying Proterozoic country rock.

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Structural Controls on VMS deposits
B. Lafrance and H. Gibson (Laurentian University)

Structures exert controls on both the formation and subsequent tectonic modification of volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits (VMS). VMS deposits form at the seafloor or sub seafloor by the precipitation of metals from hydrothermal fluids that migrated upwards along syn-volcanic faults and fissures within and along the walls of larger subsidence structures. Thus, identifying the presence of these early faults and subsidence structures is important for VMS exploration. Subsidence structures are characterized by breccias along their faulted walls and by thick deposits of volcaniclastic rocks within the structures. Faults are also present within the subsidence structures where they are characterized by abrupt terminations of volcanic flows and volcaniclastic deposits, by strong epidote-quartz-chlorite alteration, and by syn-volcanic dikes that plugged the faults. These early faults can be commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonic modification of the subsidence structures thus obscuring their early syn-volcanic origin. VMS deposits consist of weak ductile sulphide minerals and they can be strongly modified during deformation. Shearing and faulting commonly occur along the deposits and their altered host rocks resulting in thrust stacking of sulphide lenses, the formation of tectonic sulphide breccias, piercement structures in the wallrocks of sulphide lenses, and the development of a compositional layering within sulphide lenses. Primary metal zoning in sulphide lenses is however preserved and can be used to reconstruct the original deposit although it may have been strongly folded and transposed as observed at the Lalor deposit in Snow Lake, Manitoba.

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Tectonic Evolution of the Western Flin Flon Belt and Regional Setting of Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits
E.C. Syme

Regional mapping by the Manitoba Geological Survey prior to and during federal-provincial NATMAP (1991–96) and Targeted Geoscience Initiative (2000–03 and 2005–10) programs has resulted in a robust understanding of the setting of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits in the Flin Flon granite-greenstone belt (FFB). While most work in the last decade has focused on detailing the stratigraphic setting of the deposits at Flin Flon, the geochronologic, geochemical and isotopic results from all of these investigations now allow a re-evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the FFB, in light of detailed mapping of 1000 km2 within the central and western FFB. The 1.90–1.88 Ga ‘early arc and ocean-floor’ tectonostratigraphic assemblages that dominate the FFB include 1) 1.90 Ga, isotopically juvenile basalts with chemical affinity to N- and E-type MORB and BABB, and kilometre-scale tectonic fragments of mafic–ultramafic complexes similar to cumulate complexes preserved in ophiolite sequences, and 2) 1.89–1.88 Ga juvenile and isotopically contaminated arc volcanic and associated plutonic rocks. These assemblages were dissected and juxtaposed along early shear zones and subsequently isoclinally folded to form the accretionary ‘Amisk’ collage at approximately 1.87 Ga. This collage was basement for 1.87–1.86 Ga ‘early successor arc’ tholeiitic and calcalkalic magmatism, accompanied by the development of intra-arc sedimentary basins. The 1.86–1.84 Ga ‘middle successor arc’ calcalkalic plutons, rarely preserved coeval volcaniclastic rocks, and siliciclastic fluvial-alluvial basins record multiphase deformation associated with development of a microcontinent (‘Flin Flon-Glennie Complex’) by 1.85–1.84 Ga. Crustal-scale shear zones separating ca. 1.9 Ga arc and ocean-floor assemblages presumably initiated during D1, but were long-lived and generally contain panels of 1.86–1.85 Ga sedimentary rocks. Subsequent collision of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex with the Archean Sask craton and late deformation associated with terminal collision with the Superior craton resulted in the present configuration of the FFB. Stratigraphic and geochemical evidence suggests that VMS deposits in the western FFB are related to extension and rifting of the early arc assemblages; the MORB- and BABB-like basalt successions are apparently barren. Syn-volcanic extension and faulting provides volcaniclastic-filled depositional basins and conduits for hydrothermal fluids, is associated with upwelling asthenosphere and resulting high heat flow, and may result in the production of observed geochemically unique rift basalts. Isotopic evidence further suggests that juvenile arc assemblages, and not those that have been contaminated by older crust, are the main hosts to VMS deposits.

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