Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in North America 

Important HPAI Update:

April 3, 2024Avian Influenza risk remains high during the 2024 spring wild bird migration.

April 5, 2024: The discovery of an Influenza A – H5N1 virus infecting dairy cattle in the United States has raised concerns in the livestock industry across North America. Milk from affected animals should be discarded until they return to normal. Unpasteurized milk and any other raw milk products should not be used for human consumption. Enhanced biosecurity is recommended to minimize exposure of cattle to HPAI. Producers should contact their veterinarians immediately if they are concerned HPAI has affected their herds. Click here to learn more.

Avian Influenza in Manitoba

Manitoba experienced an unprecendented number of HPAI cases in both commercial and small poultry flocks since the spring of 2022. There are currently active HPAI cases across western Canada.
HPAI risk increases during spring and fall wild bird migration season. Manitoba Agriculture encourages small flock owners to watch their birds closely for sudden deaths, even when risk is low. Further information is available at the CFIA website.

  • HPAI is rapidly spreading in both Canada and the USA. The disease has been detected in wild birds and domestic flocks in numerous states and provinces, including in the states immediately south of Manitoba, along the Mississippi wild bird migration that extends into Manitoba.
  • Owners of all poultry and non poultry flocks should take the following precautions to protect their flocks and prevent the spread of HPAI: 
    • Flocks should be kept inside as long as possible, at minimum until spring migration is passed. 
    • Trading, sales and exhibitions of live birds between flocks should be stopped until the risk of HPAI is determined to be reduced. Purchase of chicks from licensed and inspected hatcheries is considered safe. 
    • Prevent contact between flocks and wild birds; feed spills should be cleaned up immediately. Dead birds and manure should not be stored near flocks. 
    • Ensure all clothing, footwear, equipment and materials that come in contact with flocks are clean. Feeding and watering equipment should be cleaned and disinfected frequently. 
    • Small flock and non-commercial flock owners are required to complete an application with Manitoba’s Premises Identification Program. This allows rapid contact should HPAI be found nearby. 
    • Contact a veterinarian immediately if any increase in sudden death or respiratory signs is seen in a flock.  Veterinarians working with small holder or hobby flocks can submit samples under the province’s Small Flock Avian Influenza Program.
Small flock owners should consider not attending shows or trading birds while the risk of Avian Influenza remains high.

Case Statistics

Since December 2021, HPAI H5N1 has spread rapidly in domestic and wild birds in North America. For the most up-to-date statistics on HPAI cases in Canada and the USA, please refer to the following links:

Disease Summary

Avian influenza (AI) is a contagious viral infection that can affect many species of food-producing birds, such as chickens, turkeys, domestic ducks and geese, quail, pheasants and guinea fowl. Wild birds, particularly geese, ducks and shorebirds, are known to transmit the virus between regions during spring and fall migration. For more information, please visit the following links:
Poultry farmers are urged to take an active role in protecting their flocks by employing strict biosecurity measures on their properties. For more information on biosecurity, please refer to the following links:

Impact on Import and Export of Poultry Products

The CFIA places restrictions on poultry and poultry products from US states with active cases of HPAI. These restrictions will be adjusted to control zones once those states provide evidence of effective control procedures.

As Manitoba is involved in considerable trade with poultry industries in the USA, trade restrictions have had a significant impact. Those hatcheries that source eggs or chicks from the affected states are now sourcing from unaffected states, or from outside control zones within states.

Transporters delivering live birds or eggs into affected states are taking extra biosecurity precautions to ensure vehicles have been properly cleaned and disinfected before returning to Manitoba. 

Testing confirmed the presence of HPAI in both wild bird and commercial poultry flock samples in Manitoba in 2022. For further information, please refer to the following media bulletins:


It is imperative that poultry producers witnessing clinical signs within their flock contact their veterinarian for further diagnosis. Attending veterinarians suspecting Avian Influenza in poultry should contact their local district CFIA office or Manitoba's Chief Veterinary Office at 204-945-7663 in Winnipeg for more information or guidance.